Version Comparison - CT2011
How do flux estimates from CarbonTracker 2010 compare with previous releases?

The tables below summarize the estimated surface fluxes for combined natural sources and fossil fuel burning from the current CarbonTracker release (CT2011) and the previous releases (CT2010, CT2009, CT2008, and CT2007B). The uncertainty in the estimates is the one standard deviation from the filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1 (1015 gC yr-1, or billion metric ton C yr-1, or 3.7 billion metric ton CO2 yr-1). Note that 2000 is excluded from long-term means as we consider it a "spin-up" year for our analysis.







Table 1: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2011 compared to CT2010, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2009
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2010
North American Boreal -0.13 ± 0.93 -0.12 ± 0.93 -0.11 ± 0.35
North American Temperate -0.47 ± 0.91 -0.48 ± 0.95 -0.49 ± 0.39
South American Tropical 0.06 ± 1.80 0.05 ± 1.80 0.13 ± 0.67
South American Temperate 0.05 ± 1.17 0.06 ± 1.15 -0.03 ± 0.78
Northern Africa -0.10 ± 1.17 -0.10 ± 1.17 0.02 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.07 ± 1.16 0.05 ± 1.18 0.10 ± 0.62
Eurasia Boreal -0.95 ± 3.45 -0.94 ± 3.45 -0.83 ± 1.16
Eurasia Temperate -0.44 ± 1.43 -0.45 ± 1.42 -0.35 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.11 ± 0.74 0.10 ± 0.72 0.15 ± 0.20
Australia -0.05 ± 0.51 -0.05 ± 0.51 -0.09 ± 0.31
Europe -0.38 ± 1.83 -0.37 ± 1.84 -0.28 ± 0.75
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.40 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.05 ± 0.12 0.05 ± 0.12 0.02 ± 0.02
East Pacific Tropical 0.47 ± 0.33 0.46 ± 0.32 0.39 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.47 ± 0.46 -0.46 ± 0.45 -0.57 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.26 ± 0.23 -0.26 ± 0.23 -0.29 ± 0.20
North Atlantic Temperate -0.28 ± 0.34 -0.27 ± 0.33 -0.37 ± 0.42
Atlantic Tropical 0.15 ± 0.15 0.15 ± 0.15 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.16 ± 0.17 -0.15 ± 0.16 -0.14 ± 0.25
Southern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.22 -0.28 ± 0.22 -0.19 ± 0.32
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.24 0.16 ± 0.24 0.16 ± 0.13
South Indian Temperate -0.55 ± 0.37 -0.54 ± 0.36 -0.69 ± 0.24
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2009
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2010
Northern Land -2.35 ± 4.42 -2.36 ± 4.43 -2.06 ± 1.62
Northern Oceans -0.94 ± 0.54 -0.93 ± 0.54 -1.07 ± 0.62
Northern -3.29 ± 4.87 -3.29 ± 4.87 -3.13 ± 2.23
Tropical Land 0.08 ± 2.27 0.05 ± 2.27 0.30 ± 0.85
Tropical Ocean 0.83 ± 0.54 0.83 ± 0.54 0.75 ± 0.36
Tropical 0.91 ± 2.66 0.88 ± 2.65 1.06 ± 1.19
Southern Land 0.06 ± 1.74 0.06 ± 1.74 -0.02 ± 1.04
Ocean in South -1.47 ± 0.73 -1.44 ± 0.71 -1.58 ± 0.66
Southern -1.41 ± 2.44 -1.38 ± 2.42 -1.60 ± 1.70
Americas -0.49 ± 2.53 -0.49 ± 2.52 -0.50 ± 1.15
Atlantic and Arctic -0.54 ± 0.48 -0.53 ± 0.48 -0.62 ± 0.60
Eurasia and Africa -0.40 ± 2.47 -0.43 ± 2.48 -0.16 ± 1.09
Indian Ocean -0.39 ± 0.49 -0.38 ± 0.48 -0.53 ± 0.27
Asia -1.32 ± 3.85 -1.33 ± 3.85 -1.11 ± 1.35
Pacific Ocean -0.36 ± 0.73 -0.35 ± 0.72 -0.56 ± 0.62
All Land -2.21 ± 5.27 -2.25 ± 5.27 -1.78 ± 2.10
All Ocean -1.58 ± 1.19 -1.54 ± 1.17 -1.89 ± 1.12
Global -3.79 ± 6.27 -3.79 ± 6.25 -3.67 ± 3.19
North America -0.60 ± 1.32 -0.60 ± 1.34 -0.60 ± 0.53
Extratropical Eurasia -1.76 ± 4.19 -1.75 ± 4.20 -1.46 ± 1.52
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.68 ± 0.49 -0.67 ± 0.49 -0.77 ± 0.60
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.18 ± 0.71 -1.16 ± 0.69 -1.39 ± 0.63
Tropical and Southern Land 0.14 ± 2.87 0.11 ± 2.86 0.28 ± 1.34
Tropical Pacific 0.52 ± 0.40 0.52 ± 0.40 0.41 ± 0.23
Temperate Oceans -1.86 ± 0.90 -1.83 ± 0.88 -2.17 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.55 ± 0.33 -0.54 ± 0.32 -0.48 ± 0.36
Extratropical Oceans -2.41 ± 0.99 -2.37 ± 0.97 -2.65 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.64 ± 1.00 -0.61 ± 0.97 -0.83 ± 0.87
Northern Boreal Land -1.07 ± 3.58 -1.06 ± 3.58 -0.94 ± 1.21
Northern Temperate Land -1.28 ± 2.54 -1.29 ± 2.55 -1.12 ± 1.02
Tropical land minus northern land 2.43 ± 4.98 2.41 ± 4.98 2.36 ± 1.84
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.33 ± 3.75 -1.32 ± 3.75 -1.23 ± 1.40
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.96 ± 2.96 -1.97 ± 2.97 -1.89 ± 1.61
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.11 ± 2.42 -1.10 ± 2.40 -1.41 ± 1.67
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.50 ± 3.70 -0.50 ± 3.68 -0.54 ± 2.19






Table 2: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2011 compared to CT2010, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2009
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2010
North American Boreal 0.03 0.03 0.01
North American Temperate 1.81 1.81 1.83
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.10
South American Temperate 0.16 0.16 0.16
Northern Africa 0.16 0.15 0.16
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.13
Eurasia Boreal 0.19 0.19 0.17
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.69 2.78
Tropical Asia 0.56 0.55 0.57
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.11
Europe 1.55 1.56 1.55
North Pacific Temperate 0.23 0.23 0.11
West Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.00
Northern Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.01
North Atlantic Temperate 0.06 0.06 0.03
Atlantic Tropical 0.04 0.04 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.07 0.06 0.02
South Indian Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.00
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2009
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2010
Northern Land 6.36 6.27 6.35
Northern Oceans 0.32 0.32 0.15
Northern 6.68 6.59 6.50
Tropical Land 0.82 0.80 0.83
Tropical Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.06
Tropical 0.95 0.92 0.89
Southern Land 0.40 0.39 0.40
Ocean in South 0.03 0.03 0.01
Southern 0.42 0.42 0.41
Americas 2.10 2.10 2.11
Atlantic and Arctic 0.13 0.13 0.07
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.84 1.84
Indian Ocean 0.08 0.07 0.03
Asia 3.63 3.52 3.62
Pacific Ocean 0.26 0.26 0.12
All Land 7.58 7.47 7.57
All Ocean 0.47 0.46 0.22
Global 8.05 7.93 7.79
North America 1.84 1.84 1.85
Extratropical Eurasia 4.52 4.43 4.50
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.29 0.29 0.14
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.02 0.02 0.01
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.19 1.22
Tropical Pacific 0.02 0.02 0.00
Temperate Oceans 0.32 0.31 0.15
High Latitude Oceans 0.03 0.03 0.01
Extratropical Oceans 0.35 0.34 0.16
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.07
Northern Boreal Land 0.22 0.21 0.19
Northern Temperate Land 6.14 6.06 6.16
Tropical land minus northern land -5.53 -5.47 -5.52
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.25 0.24 0.20
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.43 6.34 6.30
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.42 0.42 0.41
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.37 1.34 1.30






Table 3: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2011 compared to CT2009, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2008
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2009
North American Boreal -0.13 ± 0.93 -0.10 ± 0.90 -0.11 ± 0.36
North American Temperate -0.47 ± 0.91 -0.47 ± 0.98 -0.49 ± 0.41
South American Tropical 0.06 ± 1.80 0.09 ± 1.78 0.15 ± 0.68
South American Temperate 0.05 ± 1.17 0.06 ± 1.16 -0.03 ± 0.78
Northern Africa -0.10 ± 1.17 -0.09 ± 1.19 0.03 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.07 ± 1.16 0.08 ± 1.12 0.12 ± 0.63
Eurasia Boreal -0.95 ± 3.45 -0.93 ± 3.44 -0.80 ± 1.16
Eurasia Temperate -0.44 ± 1.43 -0.43 ± 1.40 -0.35 ± 0.55
Tropical Asia 0.11 ± 0.74 0.11 ± 0.73 0.16 ± 0.20
Australia -0.05 ± 0.51 -0.05 ± 0.52 -0.09 ± 0.32
Europe -0.38 ± 1.83 -0.34 ± 1.82 -0.25 ± 0.76
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.41 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.05 ± 0.12 0.05 ± 0.12 0.02 ± 0.02
East Pacific Tropical 0.47 ± 0.33 0.47 ± 0.33 0.40 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.47 ± 0.46 -0.45 ± 0.44 -0.56 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.26 ± 0.23 -0.26 ± 0.23 -0.29 ± 0.20
North Atlantic Temperate -0.28 ± 0.34 -0.27 ± 0.32 -0.37 ± 0.42
Atlantic Tropical 0.15 ± 0.15 0.15 ± 0.15 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.16 ± 0.17 -0.15 ± 0.16 -0.14 ± 0.25
Southern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.22 -0.27 ± 0.21 -0.19 ± 0.32
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.24 0.17 ± 0.24 0.16 ± 0.13
South Indian Temperate -0.55 ± 0.37 -0.54 ± 0.36 -0.68 ± 0.24
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2008
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2009
Northern Land -2.35 ± 4.42 -2.27 ± 4.41 -2.00 ± 1.63
Northern Oceans -0.94 ± 0.54 -0.93 ± 0.54 -1.07 ± 0.62
Northern -3.29 ± 4.87 -3.20 ± 4.85 -3.08 ± 2.24
Tropical Land 0.08 ± 2.27 0.10 ± 2.27 0.35 ± 0.86
Tropical Ocean 0.83 ± 0.54 0.84 ± 0.55 0.76 ± 0.36
Tropical 0.91 ± 2.66 0.94 ± 2.66 1.11 ± 1.20
Southern Land 0.06 ± 1.74 0.10 ± 1.71 -0.00 ± 1.05
Ocean in South -1.47 ± 0.73 -1.41 ± 0.70 -1.57 ± 0.66
Southern -1.41 ± 2.44 -1.32 ± 2.37 -1.57 ± 1.70
Americas -0.49 ± 2.53 -0.42 ± 2.52 -0.47 ± 1.17
Atlantic and Arctic -0.54 ± 0.48 -0.53 ± 0.48 -0.61 ± 0.59
Eurasia and Africa -0.40 ± 2.47 -0.35 ± 2.45 -0.10 ± 1.11
Indian Ocean -0.39 ± 0.49 -0.37 ± 0.47 -0.53 ± 0.27
Asia -1.32 ± 3.85 -1.31 ± 3.83 -1.08 ± 1.35
Pacific Ocean -0.36 ± 0.73 -0.33 ± 0.72 -0.56 ± 0.62
All Land -2.21 ± 5.27 -2.08 ± 5.25 -1.65 ± 2.12
All Ocean -1.58 ± 1.19 -1.50 ± 1.16 -1.89 ± 1.12
Global -3.79 ± 6.27 -3.58 ± 6.23 -3.54 ± 3.21
North America -0.60 ± 1.32 -0.57 ± 1.34 -0.59 ± 0.54
Extratropical Eurasia -1.76 ± 4.19 -1.70 ± 4.18 -1.41 ± 1.53
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.68 ± 0.49 -0.67 ± 0.49 -0.79 ± 0.60
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.18 ± 0.71 -1.14 ± 0.67 -1.38 ± 0.63
Tropical and Southern Land 0.14 ± 2.87 0.19 ± 2.85 0.35 ± 1.35
Tropical Pacific 0.52 ± 0.40 0.52 ± 0.41 0.42 ± 0.24
Temperate Oceans -1.86 ± 0.90 -1.81 ± 0.88 -2.17 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.55 ± 0.33 -0.53 ± 0.32 -0.47 ± 0.36
Extratropical Oceans -2.41 ± 0.99 -2.34 ± 0.97 -2.64 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.64 ± 1.00 -0.57 ± 0.96 -0.81 ± 0.87
Northern Boreal Land -1.07 ± 3.58 -1.03 ± 3.56 -0.91 ± 1.22
Northern Temperate Land -1.28 ± 2.54 -1.25 ± 2.54 -1.09 ± 1.04
Tropical land minus northern land 2.43 ± 4.98 2.37 ± 4.97 2.35 ± 1.85
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.33 ± 3.75 -1.28 ± 3.72 -1.20 ± 1.41
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.96 ± 2.96 -1.92 ± 2.96 -1.88 ± 1.63
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.11 ± 2.42 -1.05 ± 2.35 -1.38 ± 1.67
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.50 ± 3.70 -0.37 ± 3.65 -0.46 ± 2.20






Table 4: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2011 compared to CT2009, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2008
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2009
North American Boreal 0.03 0.03 0.01
North American Temperate 1.81 1.82 1.84
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.10
South American Temperate 0.16 0.16 0.16
Northern Africa 0.16 0.15 0.16
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.13
Eurasia Boreal 0.19 0.19 0.17
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.61 2.73
Tropical Asia 0.56 0.53 0.55
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.10
Europe 1.55 1.57 1.58
North Pacific Temperate 0.23 0.22 0.11
West Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.00
Northern Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.01
North Atlantic Temperate 0.06 0.06 0.03
Atlantic Tropical 0.04 0.04 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.07 0.06 0.02
South Indian Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.00
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2008
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2009
Northern Land 6.36 6.21 6.34
Northern Oceans 0.32 0.32 0.15
Northern 6.68 6.53 6.49
Tropical Land 0.82 0.78 0.81
Tropical Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.06
Tropical 0.95 0.90 0.87
Southern Land 0.40 0.39 0.39
Ocean in South 0.03 0.02 0.01
Southern 0.42 0.41 0.40
Americas 2.10 2.11 2.12
Atlantic and Arctic 0.13 0.13 0.07
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.84 1.86
Indian Ocean 0.08 0.07 0.03
Asia 3.63 3.43 3.56
Pacific Ocean 0.26 0.26 0.12
All Land 7.58 7.38 7.54
All Ocean 0.47 0.46 0.22
Global 8.05 7.84 7.76
North America 1.84 1.85 1.86
Extratropical Eurasia 4.52 4.37 4.48
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.29 0.29 0.14
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.02 0.02 0.01
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.17 1.21
Tropical Pacific 0.02 0.02 0.00
Temperate Oceans 0.32 0.31 0.15
High Latitude Oceans 0.03 0.03 0.01
Extratropical Oceans 0.35 0.34 0.16
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.15 0.14 0.07
Northern Boreal Land 0.22 0.21 0.19
Northern Temperate Land 6.14 6.00 6.15
Tropical land minus northern land -5.53 -5.43 -5.53
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.25 0.24 0.20
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.43 6.29 6.29
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.42 0.41 0.40
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.37 1.31 1.28






Table 5: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2011 compared to CT2008, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2007
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2008
North American Boreal -0.13 ± 0.93 -0.09 ± 0.92 -0.12 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.47 ± 0.91 -0.52 ± 1.04 -0.60 ± 0.44
South American Tropical 0.06 ± 1.80 0.13 ± 1.78 0.17 ± 0.67
South American Temperate 0.05 ± 1.17 0.05 ± 1.18 -0.04 ± 0.78
Northern Africa -0.10 ± 1.17 -0.09 ± 1.21 0.02 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.07 ± 1.16 0.14 ± 1.07 0.17 ± 0.62
Eurasia Boreal -0.95 ± 3.45 -0.89 ± 3.37 -0.82 ± 1.17
Eurasia Temperate -0.44 ± 1.43 -0.42 ± 1.42 -0.35 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.11 ± 0.74 0.14 ± 0.73 0.19 ± 0.21
Australia -0.05 ± 0.51 -0.05 ± 0.53 -0.06 ± 0.31
Europe -0.38 ± 1.83 -0.29 ± 1.80 -0.25 ± 0.73
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.42 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.05 ± 0.12 0.05 ± 0.12 0.02 ± 0.02
East Pacific Tropical 0.47 ± 0.33 0.47 ± 0.33 0.41 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.47 ± 0.46 -0.44 ± 0.42 -0.54 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.26 ± 0.23 -0.25 ± 0.23 -0.28 ± 0.19
North Atlantic Temperate -0.28 ± 0.34 -0.26 ± 0.32 -0.38 ± 0.41
Atlantic Tropical 0.15 ± 0.15 0.16 ± 0.15 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.16 ± 0.17 -0.15 ± 0.16 -0.13 ± 0.25
Southern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.22 -0.26 ± 0.21 -0.18 ± 0.31
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.24 0.17 ± 0.24 0.16 ± 0.13
South Indian Temperate -0.55 ± 0.37 -0.53 ± 0.35 -0.67 ± 0.24
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2007
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2008
Northern Land -2.35 ± 4.42 -2.20 ± 4.38 -2.14 ± 1.63
Northern Oceans -0.94 ± 0.54 -0.91 ± 0.53 -1.08 ± 0.62
Northern -3.29 ± 4.87 -3.12 ± 4.82 -3.23 ± 2.24
Tropical Land 0.08 ± 2.27 0.18 ± 2.28 0.39 ± 0.86
Tropical Ocean 0.83 ± 0.54 0.85 ± 0.55 0.78 ± 0.36
Tropical 0.91 ± 2.66 1.03 ± 2.67 1.16 ± 1.20
Southern Land 0.06 ± 1.74 0.14 ± 1.69 0.06 ± 1.04
Ocean in South -1.47 ± 0.73 -1.38 ± 0.67 -1.51 ± 0.66
Southern -1.41 ± 2.44 -1.23 ± 2.33 -1.45 ± 1.69
Americas -0.49 ± 2.53 -0.41 ± 2.55 -0.58 ± 1.17
Atlantic and Arctic -0.54 ± 0.48 -0.50 ± 0.47 -0.60 ± 0.59
Eurasia and Africa -0.40 ± 2.47 -0.24 ± 2.42 -0.06 ± 1.08
Indian Ocean -0.39 ± 0.49 -0.36 ± 0.47 -0.51 ± 0.27
Asia -1.32 ± 3.85 -1.23 ± 3.79 -1.05 ± 1.36
Pacific Ocean -0.36 ± 0.73 -0.31 ± 0.71 -0.53 ± 0.62
All Land -2.21 ± 5.27 -1.88 ± 5.22 -1.70 ± 2.12
All Ocean -1.58 ± 1.19 -1.44 ± 1.14 -1.82 ± 1.11
Global -3.79 ± 6.27 -3.32 ± 6.17 -3.52 ± 3.20
North America -0.60 ± 1.32 -0.60 ± 1.39 -0.72 ± 0.57
Extratropical Eurasia -1.76 ± 4.19 -1.60 ± 4.13 -1.43 ± 1.52
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.68 ± 0.49 -0.66 ± 0.49 -0.80 ± 0.60
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.18 ± 0.71 -1.11 ± 0.65 -1.34 ± 0.63
Tropical and Southern Land 0.14 ± 2.87 0.32 ± 2.84 0.45 ± 1.35
Tropical Pacific 0.52 ± 0.40 0.52 ± 0.41 0.43 ± 0.24
Temperate Oceans -1.86 ± 0.90 -1.77 ± 0.85 -2.14 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.55 ± 0.33 -0.51 ± 0.31 -0.46 ± 0.35
Extratropical Oceans -2.41 ± 0.99 -2.29 ± 0.94 -2.60 ± 0.96
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.64 ± 1.00 -0.53 ± 0.94 -0.74 ± 0.86
Northern Boreal Land -1.07 ± 3.58 -0.98 ± 3.50 -0.94 ± 1.23
Northern Temperate Land -1.28 ± 2.54 -1.23 ± 2.55 -1.20 ± 1.03
Tropical land minus northern land 2.43 ± 4.98 2.39 ± 4.95 2.53 ± 1.85
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.33 ± 3.75 -1.23 ± 3.66 -1.23 ± 1.41
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.96 ± 2.96 -1.89 ± 2.97 -2.00 ± 1.61
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.11 ± 2.42 -0.97 ± 2.30 -1.27 ± 1.67
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.50 ± 3.70 -0.21 ± 3.62 -0.29 ± 2.19






Table 6: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2011 compared to CT2008, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2007
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2008
North American Boreal 0.03 0.03 0.01
North American Temperate 1.81 1.82 1.97
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.11
South American Temperate 0.16 0.16 0.15
Northern Africa 0.16 0.15 0.18
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.13
Eurasia Boreal 0.19 0.18 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.53 2.64
Tropical Asia 0.56 0.51 0.51
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.10
Europe 1.55 1.56 1.64
North Pacific Temperate 0.23 0.22 0.14
West Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.00
Northern Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.02
North Atlantic Temperate 0.06 0.06 0.03
Atlantic Tropical 0.04 0.04 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.07 0.06 0.04
South Indian Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.01
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2007
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2008
Northern Land 6.36 6.12 6.36
Northern Oceans 0.32 0.31 0.19
Northern 6.68 6.43 6.55
Tropical Land 0.82 0.76 0.81
Tropical Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.07
Tropical 0.95 0.88 0.88
Southern Land 0.40 0.38 0.38
Ocean in South 0.03 0.02 0.01
Southern 0.42 0.40 0.39
Americas 2.10 2.10 2.24
Atlantic and Arctic 0.13 0.13 0.09
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.84 1.95
Indian Ocean 0.08 0.07 0.04
Asia 3.63 3.32 3.35
Pacific Ocean 0.26 0.25 0.15
All Land 7.58 7.26 7.55
All Ocean 0.47 0.45 0.28
Global 8.05 7.71 7.83
North America 1.84 1.84 1.98
Extratropical Eurasia 4.52 4.28 4.38
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.29 0.28 0.17
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.02 0.02 0.01
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.14 1.19
Tropical Pacific 0.02 0.02 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.32 0.31 0.18
High Latitude Oceans 0.03 0.03 0.02
Extratropical Oceans 0.35 0.34 0.20
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.15 0.14 0.09
Northern Boreal Land 0.22 0.21 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.14 5.91 6.24
Tropical land minus northern land -5.53 -5.36 -5.55
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.25 0.24 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.43 6.19 6.41
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.42 0.40 0.39
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.37 1.28 1.28






Table 7: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2011 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2007B
North American Boreal -0.13 ± 0.93 -0.09 ± 0.96 -0.14 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.47 ± 0.91 -0.53 ± 1.09 -0.54 ± 0.52
South American Tropical 0.06 ± 1.80 0.08 ± 1.82 0.08 ± 0.68
South American Temperate 0.05 ± 1.17 0.03 ± 1.20 -0.03 ± 0.77
Northern Africa -0.10 ± 1.17 -0.07 ± 1.22 0.03 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.07 ± 1.16 0.16 ± 1.08 0.21 ± 0.59
Eurasia Boreal -0.95 ± 3.45 -0.87 ± 3.35 -0.64 ± 1.10
Eurasia Temperate -0.44 ± 1.43 -0.40 ± 1.46 -0.32 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.11 ± 0.74 0.16 ± 0.73 0.20 ± 0.20
Australia -0.05 ± 0.51 -0.06 ± 0.53 -0.10 ± 0.31
Europe -0.38 ± 1.83 -0.24 ± 1.82 -0.30 ± 0.79
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.35 -0.40 ± 0.36 -0.39 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.05 ± 0.12 0.05 ± 0.12 0.02 ± 0.03
East Pacific Tropical 0.47 ± 0.33 0.47 ± 0.32 0.38 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.47 ± 0.46 -0.43 ± 0.41 -0.49 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.26 ± 0.23 -0.25 ± 0.23 -0.27 ± 0.22
North Atlantic Temperate -0.28 ± 0.34 -0.26 ± 0.31 -0.40 ± 0.40
Atlantic Tropical 0.15 ± 0.15 0.16 ± 0.15 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.16 ± 0.17 -0.15 ± 0.16 -0.14 ± 0.23
Southern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.22 -0.25 ± 0.21 -0.22 ± 0.33
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.24 0.17 ± 0.24 0.16 ± 0.15
South Indian Temperate -0.55 ± 0.37 -0.52 ± 0.34 -0.64 ± 0.25
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2007B
Northern Land -2.35 ± 4.42 -2.13 ± 4.41 -1.94 ± 1.64
Northern Oceans -0.94 ± 0.54 -0.90 ± 0.54 -1.05 ± 0.62
Northern -3.29 ± 4.87 -3.03 ± 4.85 -3.00 ± 2.22
Tropical Land 0.08 ± 2.27 0.16 ± 2.31 0.30 ± 0.87
Tropical Ocean 0.83 ± 0.54 0.85 ± 0.55 0.74 ± 0.38
Tropical 0.91 ± 2.66 1.01 ± 2.70 1.05 ± 1.21
Southern Land 0.06 ± 1.74 0.13 ± 1.70 0.08 ± 1.01
Ocean in South -1.47 ± 0.73 -1.35 ± 0.66 -1.49 ± 0.68
Southern -1.41 ± 2.44 -1.22 ± 2.33 -1.41 ± 1.68
Americas -0.49 ± 2.53 -0.50 ± 2.62 -0.63 ± 1.21
Atlantic and Arctic -0.54 ± 0.48 -0.50 ± 0.46 -0.62 ± 0.58
Eurasia and Africa -0.40 ± 2.47 -0.15 ± 2.45 -0.06 ± 1.11
Indian Ocean -0.39 ± 0.49 -0.35 ± 0.46 -0.48 ± 0.29
Asia -1.32 ± 3.85 -1.18 ± 3.79 -0.87 ± 1.30
Pacific Ocean -0.36 ± 0.73 -0.30 ± 0.70 -0.48 ± 0.64
All Land -2.21 ± 5.27 -1.83 ± 5.27 -1.56 ± 2.11
All Ocean -1.58 ± 1.19 -1.40 ± 1.14 -1.80 ± 1.14
Global -3.79 ± 6.27 -3.23 ± 6.21 -3.36 ± 3.19
North America -0.60 ± 1.32 -0.62 ± 1.45 -0.68 ± 0.64
Extratropical Eurasia -1.76 ± 4.19 -1.51 ± 4.15 -1.26 ± 1.50
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.68 ± 0.49 -0.65 ± 0.49 -0.78 ± 0.58
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.18 ± 0.71 -1.09 ± 0.63 -1.27 ± 0.65
Tropical and Southern Land 0.14 ± 2.87 0.29 ± 2.87 0.38 ± 1.33
Tropical Pacific 0.52 ± 0.40 0.52 ± 0.41 0.40 ± 0.25
Temperate Oceans -1.86 ± 0.90 -1.75 ± 0.84 -2.05 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.55 ± 0.33 -0.50 ± 0.31 -0.50 ± 0.38
Extratropical Oceans -2.41 ± 0.99 -2.25 ± 0.93 -2.55 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.64 ± 1.00 -0.50 ± 0.93 -0.75 ± 0.90
Northern Boreal Land -1.07 ± 3.58 -0.96 ± 3.49 -0.78 ± 1.17
Northern Temperate Land -1.28 ± 2.54 -1.17 ± 2.62 -1.16 ± 1.11
Tropical land minus northern land 2.43 ± 4.98 2.29 ± 4.99 2.25 ± 1.86
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.33 ± 3.75 -1.21 ± 3.65 -1.05 ± 1.35
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.96 ± 2.96 -1.82 ± 3.04 -1.94 ± 1.66
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.11 ± 2.42 -0.96 ± 2.30 -1.19 ± 1.65
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.50 ± 3.70 -0.20 ± 3.64 -0.37 ± 2.20






Table 8: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2011 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2010 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2007B
North American Boreal 0.03 0.03 0.01
North American Temperate 1.81 1.81 1.91
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.12
South American Temperate 0.16 0.15 0.14
Northern Africa 0.16 0.14 0.17
Southern Africa 0.13 0.12 0.12
Eurasia Boreal 0.19 0.18 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.44 2.53
Tropical Asia 0.56 0.50 0.47
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.09
Europe 1.55 1.56 1.63
North Pacific Temperate 0.23 0.22 0.17
West Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.01 0.01 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.01
Northern Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.03
North Atlantic Temperate 0.06 0.06 0.05
Atlantic Tropical 0.04 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.07 0.06 0.08
South Indian Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.02
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2010 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2011 CT2011 CT2007B
Northern Land 6.36 6.02 6.18
Northern Oceans 0.32 0.31 0.26
Northern 6.68 6.32 6.44
Tropical Land 0.82 0.74 0.75
Tropical Ocean 0.12 0.11 0.12
Tropical 0.95 0.85 0.88
Southern Land 0.40 0.37 0.35
Ocean in South 0.03 0.02 0.03
Southern 0.42 0.40 0.38
Americas 2.10 2.09 2.18
Atlantic and Arctic 0.13 0.13 0.12
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.83 1.92
Indian Ocean 0.08 0.07 0.10
Asia 3.63 3.21 3.18
Pacific Ocean 0.26 0.25 0.19
All Land 7.58 7.13 7.29
All Ocean 0.47 0.44 0.41
Global 8.05 7.58 7.70
North America 1.84 1.84 1.92
Extratropical Eurasia 4.52 4.18 4.26
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.29 0.28 0.23
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.02 0.02 0.03
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.11 1.11
Tropical Pacific 0.02 0.02 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.32 0.30 0.26
High Latitude Oceans 0.03 0.03 0.03
Extratropical Oceans 0.35 0.33 0.29
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.15 0.14 0.16
Northern Boreal Land 0.22 0.21 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.14 5.81 6.07
Tropical land minus northern land -5.53 -5.28 -5.43
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.25 0.24 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.43 6.09 6.29
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.42 0.40 0.38
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.37 1.25 1.26






Table 9: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2010 compared to CT2009, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2009 2001-2008
Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2009
North American Boreal -0.11 ± 0.35 -0.11 ± 0.36 -0.11 ± 0.36
North American Temperate -0.49 ± 0.39 -0.46 ± 0.41 -0.49 ± 0.41
South American Tropical 0.13 ± 0.67 0.16 ± 0.68 0.15 ± 0.68
South American Temperate -0.03 ± 0.78 -0.04 ± 0.78 -0.03 ± 0.78
Northern Africa 0.02 ± 0.50 0.04 ± 0.50 0.03 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.10 ± 0.62 0.12 ± 0.63 0.12 ± 0.63
Eurasia Boreal -0.83 ± 1.16 -0.79 ± 1.16 -0.80 ± 1.16
Eurasia Temperate -0.35 ± 0.54 -0.35 ± 0.54 -0.35 ± 0.55
Tropical Asia 0.15 ± 0.20 0.16 ± 0.20 0.16 ± 0.20
Australia -0.09 ± 0.31 -0.09 ± 0.32 -0.09 ± 0.32
Europe -0.28 ± 0.75 -0.28 ± 0.76 -0.25 ± 0.76
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.39 -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.41 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02
East Pacific Tropical 0.39 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.57 ± 0.46 -0.56 ± 0.46 -0.56 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.20 -0.29 ± 0.20 -0.29 ± 0.20
North Atlantic Temperate -0.37 ± 0.42 -0.37 ± 0.41 -0.37 ± 0.42
Atlantic Tropical 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.14 ± 0.25
Southern Ocean -0.19 ± 0.32 -0.18 ± 0.32 -0.19 ± 0.32
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.13
South Indian Temperate -0.69 ± 0.24 -0.68 ± 0.24 -0.68 ± 0.24
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2009 2001-2008
Aggregated Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2009
Northern Land -2.06 ± 1.62 -1.99 ± 1.63 -2.00 ± 1.63
Northern Oceans -1.07 ± 0.62 -1.07 ± 0.62 -1.07 ± 0.62
Northern -3.13 ± 2.23 -3.06 ± 2.23 -3.08 ± 2.24
Tropical Land 0.30 ± 0.85 0.36 ± 0.86 0.35 ± 0.86
Tropical Ocean 0.75 ± 0.36 0.76 ± 0.36 0.76 ± 0.36
Tropical 1.06 ± 1.19 1.12 ± 1.20 1.11 ± 1.20
Southern Land -0.02 ± 1.04 -0.00 ± 1.05 -0.00 ± 1.05
Ocean in South -1.58 ± 0.66 -1.56 ± 0.66 -1.57 ± 0.66
Southern -1.60 ± 1.70 -1.57 ± 1.70 -1.57 ± 1.70
Americas -0.50 ± 1.15 -0.45 ± 1.16 -0.47 ± 1.17
Atlantic and Arctic -0.62 ± 0.60 -0.61 ± 0.59 -0.61 ± 0.59
Eurasia and Africa -0.16 ± 1.09 -0.12 ± 1.10 -0.10 ± 1.11
Indian Ocean -0.53 ± 0.27 -0.53 ± 0.27 -0.53 ± 0.27
Asia -1.11 ± 1.35 -1.07 ± 1.35 -1.08 ± 1.35
Pacific Ocean -0.56 ± 0.62 -0.55 ± 0.62 -0.56 ± 0.62
All Land -1.78 ± 2.10 -1.64 ± 2.11 -1.65 ± 2.12
All Ocean -1.89 ± 1.12 -1.87 ± 1.12 -1.89 ± 1.12
Global -3.67 ± 3.19 -3.51 ± 3.20 -3.54 ± 3.21
North America -0.60 ± 0.53 -0.57 ± 0.54 -0.59 ± 0.54
Extratropical Eurasia -1.46 ± 1.52 -1.42 ± 1.52 -1.41 ± 1.53
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.77 ± 0.60 -0.78 ± 0.60 -0.79 ± 0.60
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.39 ± 0.63 -1.38 ± 0.63 -1.38 ± 0.63
Tropical and Southern Land 0.28 ± 1.34 0.35 ± 1.35 0.35 ± 1.35
Tropical Pacific 0.41 ± 0.23 0.42 ± 0.24 0.42 ± 0.24
Temperate Oceans -2.17 ± 0.82 -2.16 ± 0.82 -2.17 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.48 ± 0.36 -0.47 ± 0.36 -0.47 ± 0.36
Extratropical Oceans -2.65 ± 0.97 -2.63 ± 0.97 -2.64 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.83 ± 0.87 -0.80 ± 0.87 -0.81 ± 0.87
Northern Boreal Land -0.94 ± 1.21 -0.90 ± 1.21 -0.91 ± 1.22
Northern Temperate Land -1.12 ± 1.02 -1.09 ± 1.03 -1.09 ± 1.04
Tropical land minus northern land 2.36 ± 1.84 2.35 ± 1.84 2.35 ± 1.85
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.23 ± 1.40 -1.19 ± 1.40 -1.20 ± 1.41
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.89 ± 1.61 -1.87 ± 1.62 -1.88 ± 1.63
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.41 ± 1.67 -1.38 ± 1.67 -1.38 ± 1.67
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.54 ± 2.19 -0.45 ± 2.20 -0.46 ± 2.20






Table 10: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2010 compared to CT2009, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2009 2001-2008
Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2009
North American Boreal 0.01 0.01 0.01
North American Temperate 1.83 1.84 1.84
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.10
South American Temperate 0.16 0.16 0.16
Northern Africa 0.16 0.16 0.16
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.13
Eurasia Boreal 0.17 0.17 0.17
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.70 2.73
Tropical Asia 0.57 0.55 0.55
Australia 0.11 0.10 0.10
Europe 1.55 1.57 1.58
North Pacific Temperate 0.11 0.11 0.11
West Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Northern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.01
North Atlantic Temperate 0.03 0.03 0.03
Atlantic Tropical 0.03 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.02 0.02 0.02
South Indian Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2009 2001-2008
Aggregated Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2009
Northern Land 6.35 6.30 6.34
Northern Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.15
Northern 6.50 6.45 6.49
Tropical Land 0.83 0.81 0.81
Tropical Ocean 0.06 0.06 0.06
Tropical 0.89 0.87 0.87
Southern Land 0.40 0.39 0.39
Ocean in South 0.01 0.01 0.01
Southern 0.41 0.40 0.40
Americas 2.11 2.11 2.12
Atlantic and Arctic 0.07 0.07 0.07
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.86 1.86
Indian Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.03
Asia 3.62 3.53 3.56
Pacific Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.12
All Land 7.57 7.50 7.54
All Ocean 0.22 0.22 0.22
Global 7.79 7.72 7.76
North America 1.85 1.86 1.86
Extratropical Eurasia 4.50 4.44 4.48
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.14 0.14 0.14
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.01
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.20 1.21
Tropical Pacific 0.00 0.00 0.00
Temperate Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.15
High Latitude Oceans 0.01 0.01 0.01
Extratropical Oceans 0.16 0.16 0.16
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.07 0.07 0.07
Northern Boreal Land 0.19 0.19 0.19
Northern Temperate Land 6.16 6.11 6.15
Tropical land minus northern land -5.52 -5.49 -5.53
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.20 0.20 0.20
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.30 6.25 6.29
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.41 0.40 0.40
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.30 1.27 1.28






Table 11: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2010 compared to CT2008, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2009 2001-2007
Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2008
North American Boreal -0.11 ± 0.35 -0.10 ± 0.36 -0.12 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.49 ± 0.39 -0.48 ± 0.43 -0.60 ± 0.44
South American Tropical 0.13 ± 0.67 0.20 ± 0.67 0.17 ± 0.67
South American Temperate -0.03 ± 0.78 -0.04 ± 0.78 -0.04 ± 0.78
Northern Africa 0.02 ± 0.50 0.03 ± 0.50 0.02 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.10 ± 0.62 0.16 ± 0.61 0.17 ± 0.62
Eurasia Boreal -0.83 ± 1.16 -0.78 ± 1.15 -0.82 ± 1.17
Eurasia Temperate -0.35 ± 0.54 -0.35 ± 0.55 -0.35 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.15 ± 0.20 0.19 ± 0.21 0.19 ± 0.21
Australia -0.09 ± 0.31 -0.08 ± 0.31 -0.06 ± 0.31
Europe -0.28 ± 0.75 -0.25 ± 0.75 -0.25 ± 0.73
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.39 -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.42 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02
East Pacific Tropical 0.39 ± 0.23 0.41 ± 0.23 0.41 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.57 ± 0.46 -0.52 ± 0.46 -0.54 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.20 -0.28 ± 0.19 -0.28 ± 0.19
North Atlantic Temperate -0.37 ± 0.42 -0.36 ± 0.41 -0.38 ± 0.41
Atlantic Tropical 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.13 ± 0.25
Southern Ocean -0.19 ± 0.32 -0.18 ± 0.31 -0.18 ± 0.31
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.13
South Indian Temperate -0.69 ± 0.24 -0.67 ± 0.23 -0.67 ± 0.24
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2009 2001-2007
Aggregated Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2008
Northern Land -2.06 ± 1.62 -1.95 ± 1.63 -2.14 ± 1.63
Northern Oceans -1.07 ± 0.62 -1.04 ± 0.62 -1.08 ± 0.62
Northern -3.13 ± 2.23 -2.99 ± 2.23 -3.23 ± 2.24
Tropical Land 0.30 ± 0.85 0.42 ± 0.86 0.39 ± 0.86
Tropical Ocean 0.75 ± 0.36 0.77 ± 0.36 0.78 ± 0.36
Tropical 1.06 ± 1.19 1.19 ± 1.20 1.16 ± 1.20
Southern Land -0.02 ± 1.04 0.04 ± 1.04 0.06 ± 1.04
Ocean in South -1.58 ± 0.66 -1.51 ± 0.65 -1.51 ± 0.66
Southern -1.60 ± 1.70 -1.48 ± 1.69 -1.45 ± 1.69
Americas -0.50 ± 1.15 -0.41 ± 1.17 -0.58 ± 1.17
Atlantic and Arctic -0.62 ± 0.60 -0.58 ± 0.59 -0.60 ± 0.59
Eurasia and Africa -0.16 ± 1.09 -0.06 ± 1.09 -0.06 ± 1.08
Indian Ocean -0.53 ± 0.27 -0.52 ± 0.27 -0.51 ± 0.27
Asia -1.11 ± 1.35 -1.02 ± 1.34 -1.05 ± 1.36
Pacific Ocean -0.56 ± 0.62 -0.50 ± 0.62 -0.53 ± 0.62
All Land -1.78 ± 2.10 -1.50 ± 2.11 -1.70 ± 2.12
All Ocean -1.89 ± 1.12 -1.78 ± 1.11 -1.82 ± 1.11
Global -3.67 ± 3.19 -3.28 ± 3.19 -3.52 ± 3.20
North America -0.60 ± 0.53 -0.58 ± 0.56 -0.72 ± 0.57
Extratropical Eurasia -1.46 ± 1.52 -1.38 ± 1.52 -1.43 ± 1.52
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.77 ± 0.60 -0.76 ± 0.60 -0.80 ± 0.60
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.39 ± 0.63 -1.33 ± 0.63 -1.34 ± 0.63
Tropical and Southern Land 0.28 ± 1.34 0.45 ± 1.35 0.45 ± 1.35
Tropical Pacific 0.41 ± 0.23 0.43 ± 0.24 0.43 ± 0.24
Temperate Oceans -2.17 ± 0.82 -2.10 ± 0.82 -2.14 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.48 ± 0.36 -0.46 ± 0.35 -0.46 ± 0.35
Extratropical Oceans -2.65 ± 0.97 -2.55 ± 0.96 -2.60 ± 0.96
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.83 ± 0.87 -0.74 ± 0.86 -0.74 ± 0.86
Northern Boreal Land -0.94 ± 1.21 -0.87 ± 1.21 -0.94 ± 1.23
Northern Temperate Land -1.12 ± 1.02 -1.08 ± 1.04 -1.20 ± 1.03
Tropical land minus northern land 2.36 ± 1.84 2.37 ± 1.84 2.53 ± 1.85
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.23 ± 1.40 -1.15 ± 1.39 -1.23 ± 1.41
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.89 ± 1.61 -1.84 ± 1.63 -2.00 ± 1.61
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.41 ± 1.67 -1.29 ± 1.66 -1.27 ± 1.67
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.54 ± 2.19 -0.29 ± 2.18 -0.29 ± 2.19






Table 12: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2010 compared to CT2008, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2009 2001-2007
Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2008
North American Boreal 0.01 0.01 0.01
North American Temperate 1.83 1.84 1.97
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.11
South American Temperate 0.16 0.16 0.15
Northern Africa 0.16 0.16 0.18
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.13
Eurasia Boreal 0.17 0.17 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.62 2.64
Tropical Asia 0.57 0.53 0.51
Australia 0.11 0.10 0.10
Europe 1.55 1.57 1.64
North Pacific Temperate 0.11 0.11 0.14
West Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Northern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.02
North Atlantic Temperate 0.03 0.03 0.03
Atlantic Tropical 0.03 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.02 0.02 0.04
South Indian Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2009 2001-2007
Aggregated Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2008
Northern Land 6.35 6.22 6.36
Northern Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.19
Northern 6.50 6.37 6.55
Tropical Land 0.83 0.79 0.81
Tropical Ocean 0.06 0.06 0.07
Tropical 0.89 0.85 0.88
Southern Land 0.40 0.39 0.38
Ocean in South 0.01 0.01 0.01
Southern 0.41 0.40 0.39
Americas 2.11 2.11 2.24
Atlantic and Arctic 0.07 0.07 0.09
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.85 1.95
Indian Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.04
Asia 3.62 3.43 3.35
Pacific Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.15
All Land 7.57 7.39 7.55
All Ocean 0.22 0.22 0.28
Global 7.79 7.61 7.83
North America 1.85 1.85 1.98
Extratropical Eurasia 4.50 4.36 4.38
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.14 0.14 0.17
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.01
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.18 1.19
Tropical Pacific 0.00 0.00 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.18
High Latitude Oceans 0.01 0.01 0.02
Extratropical Oceans 0.16 0.16 0.20
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.07 0.07 0.09
Northern Boreal Land 0.19 0.19 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.16 6.03 6.24
Tropical land minus northern land -5.52 -5.43 -5.55
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.20 0.19 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.30 6.17 6.41
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.41 0.40 0.39
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.30 1.25 1.28






Table 13: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2010 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2009 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2007B
North American Boreal -0.11 ± 0.35 -0.09 ± 0.37 -0.14 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.49 ± 0.39 -0.47 ± 0.44 -0.54 ± 0.52
South American Tropical 0.13 ± 0.67 0.16 ± 0.67 0.08 ± 0.68
South American Temperate -0.03 ± 0.78 -0.05 ± 0.78 -0.03 ± 0.77
Northern Africa 0.02 ± 0.50 0.01 ± 0.51 0.03 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.10 ± 0.62 0.18 ± 0.60 0.21 ± 0.59
Eurasia Boreal -0.83 ± 1.16 -0.76 ± 1.16 -0.64 ± 1.10
Eurasia Temperate -0.35 ± 0.54 -0.33 ± 0.55 -0.32 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.15 ± 0.20 0.19 ± 0.21 0.20 ± 0.20
Australia -0.09 ± 0.31 -0.10 ± 0.32 -0.10 ± 0.31
Europe -0.28 ± 0.75 -0.22 ± 0.76 -0.30 ± 0.79
North Pacific Temperate -0.40 ± 0.39 -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.39 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.03
East Pacific Tropical 0.39 ± 0.23 0.41 ± 0.22 0.38 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.57 ± 0.46 -0.50 ± 0.46 -0.49 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.20 -0.27 ± 0.19 -0.27 ± 0.22
North Atlantic Temperate -0.37 ± 0.42 -0.35 ± 0.41 -0.40 ± 0.40
Atlantic Tropical 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.14 ± 0.24 -0.14 ± 0.23
Southern Ocean -0.19 ± 0.32 -0.17 ± 0.30 -0.22 ± 0.33
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.14 0.16 ± 0.15
South Indian Temperate -0.69 ± 0.24 -0.67 ± 0.24 -0.64 ± 0.25
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2009 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2007B
Northern Land -2.06 ± 1.62 -1.87 ± 1.65 -1.94 ± 1.64
Northern Oceans -1.07 ± 0.62 -1.03 ± 0.62 -1.05 ± 0.62
Northern -3.13 ± 2.23 -2.90 ± 2.25 -3.00 ± 2.22
Tropical Land 0.30 ± 0.85 0.36 ± 0.86 0.30 ± 0.87
Tropical Ocean 0.75 ± 0.36 0.78 ± 0.36 0.74 ± 0.38
Tropical 1.06 ± 1.19 1.14 ± 1.20 1.05 ± 1.21
Southern Land -0.02 ± 1.04 0.03 ± 1.04 0.08 ± 1.01
Ocean in South -1.58 ± 0.66 -1.48 ± 0.65 -1.49 ± 0.68
Southern -1.60 ± 1.70 -1.44 ± 1.69 -1.41 ± 1.68
Americas -0.50 ± 1.15 -0.45 ± 1.18 -0.63 ± 1.21
Atlantic and Arctic -0.62 ± 0.60 -0.56 ± 0.59 -0.62 ± 0.58
Eurasia and Africa -0.16 ± 1.09 -0.02 ± 1.10 -0.06 ± 1.11
Indian Ocean -0.53 ± 0.27 -0.51 ± 0.27 -0.48 ± 0.29
Asia -1.11 ± 1.35 -1.00 ± 1.36 -0.87 ± 1.30
Pacific Ocean -0.56 ± 0.62 -0.48 ± 0.62 -0.48 ± 0.64
All Land -1.78 ± 2.10 -1.47 ± 2.12 -1.56 ± 2.11
All Ocean -1.89 ± 1.12 -1.72 ± 1.11 -1.80 ± 1.14
Global -3.67 ± 3.19 -3.20 ± 3.20 -3.36 ± 3.19
North America -0.60 ± 0.53 -0.56 ± 0.58 -0.68 ± 0.64
Extratropical Eurasia -1.46 ± 1.52 -1.31 ± 1.53 -1.26 ± 1.50
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.77 ± 0.60 -0.76 ± 0.60 -0.78 ± 0.58
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.39 ± 0.63 -1.30 ± 0.63 -1.27 ± 0.65
Tropical and Southern Land 0.28 ± 1.34 0.40 ± 1.34 0.38 ± 1.33
Tropical Pacific 0.41 ± 0.23 0.43 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.25
Temperate Oceans -2.17 ± 0.82 -2.06 ± 0.82 -2.05 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.48 ± 0.36 -0.44 ± 0.34 -0.50 ± 0.38
Extratropical Oceans -2.65 ± 0.97 -2.51 ± 0.96 -2.55 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.83 ± 0.87 -0.70 ± 0.86 -0.75 ± 0.90
Northern Boreal Land -0.94 ± 1.21 -0.85 ± 1.22 -0.78 ± 1.17
Northern Temperate Land -1.12 ± 1.02 -1.02 ± 1.06 -1.16 ± 1.11
Tropical land minus northern land 2.36 ± 1.84 2.23 ± 1.86 2.25 ± 1.86
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.23 ± 1.40 -1.12 ± 1.40 -1.05 ± 1.35
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.89 ± 1.61 -1.78 ± 1.65 -1.94 ± 1.66
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.41 ± 1.67 -1.27 ± 1.66 -1.19 ± 1.65
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.54 ± 2.19 -0.30 ± 2.18 -0.37 ± 2.20






Table 14: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2010 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2009 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2007B
North American Boreal 0.01 0.01 0.01
North American Temperate 1.83 1.83 1.91
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.12
South American Temperate 0.16 0.15 0.14
Northern Africa 0.16 0.15 0.17
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.12
Eurasia Boreal 0.17 0.17 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.78 2.54 2.53
Tropical Asia 0.57 0.52 0.47
Australia 0.11 0.10 0.09
Europe 1.55 1.57 1.63
North Pacific Temperate 0.11 0.11 0.17
West Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Northern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.03
North Atlantic Temperate 0.03 0.03 0.05
Atlantic Tropical 0.03 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.02 0.02 0.08
South Indian Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.02
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2009 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2010 CT2010 CT2007B
Northern Land 6.35 6.12 6.18
Northern Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.26
Northern 6.50 6.27 6.44
Tropical Land 0.83 0.77 0.75
Tropical Ocean 0.06 0.06 0.12
Tropical 0.89 0.83 0.88
Southern Land 0.40 0.38 0.35
Ocean in South 0.01 0.01 0.03
Southern 0.41 0.39 0.38
Americas 2.11 2.10 2.18
Atlantic and Arctic 0.07 0.07 0.12
Eurasia and Africa 1.84 1.85 1.92
Indian Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.10
Asia 3.62 3.33 3.18
Pacific Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.19
All Land 7.57 7.27 7.29
All Ocean 0.22 0.22 0.41
Global 7.79 7.49 7.70
North America 1.85 1.85 1.92
Extratropical Eurasia 4.50 4.28 4.26
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.14 0.14 0.23
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.03
Tropical and Southern Land 1.22 1.15 1.11
Tropical Pacific 0.00 0.00 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.26
High Latitude Oceans 0.01 0.01 0.03
Extratropical Oceans 0.16 0.15 0.29
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.07 0.07 0.16
Northern Boreal Land 0.19 0.18 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.16 5.94 6.07
Tropical land minus northern land -5.52 -5.36 -5.43
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.20 0.19 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.30 6.08 6.29
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.41 0.39 0.38
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.30 1.22 1.26






Table 15: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2009 compared to CT2008, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2008 2001-2007
Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2008
North American Boreal -0.11 ± 0.36 -0.10 ± 0.36 -0.12 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.49 ± 0.41 -0.49 ± 0.43 -0.60 ± 0.44
South American Tropical 0.15 ± 0.68 0.20 ± 0.67 0.17 ± 0.67
South American Temperate -0.03 ± 0.78 -0.04 ± 0.78 -0.04 ± 0.78
Northern Africa 0.03 ± 0.50 0.03 ± 0.50 0.02 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.12 ± 0.63 0.16 ± 0.61 0.17 ± 0.62
Eurasia Boreal -0.80 ± 1.16 -0.78 ± 1.15 -0.82 ± 1.17
Eurasia Temperate -0.35 ± 0.55 -0.35 ± 0.55 -0.35 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.16 ± 0.20 0.19 ± 0.21 0.19 ± 0.21
Australia -0.09 ± 0.32 -0.08 ± 0.31 -0.06 ± 0.31
Europe -0.25 ± 0.76 -0.24 ± 0.75 -0.25 ± 0.73
North Pacific Temperate -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.42 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02
East Pacific Tropical 0.40 ± 0.23 0.41 ± 0.23 0.41 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.56 ± 0.46 -0.52 ± 0.46 -0.54 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.20 -0.28 ± 0.19 -0.28 ± 0.19
North Atlantic Temperate -0.37 ± 0.42 -0.36 ± 0.41 -0.38 ± 0.41
Atlantic Tropical 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.13 ± 0.25
Southern Ocean -0.19 ± 0.32 -0.18 ± 0.31 -0.18 ± 0.31
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.13
South Indian Temperate -0.68 ± 0.24 -0.67 ± 0.24 -0.67 ± 0.24
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2008 2001-2007
Aggregated Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2008
Northern Land -2.00 ± 1.63 -1.96 ± 1.63 -2.14 ± 1.63
Northern Oceans -1.07 ± 0.62 -1.04 ± 0.62 -1.08 ± 0.62
Northern -3.08 ± 2.24 -3.00 ± 2.23 -3.23 ± 2.24
Tropical Land 0.35 ± 0.86 0.41 ± 0.86 0.39 ± 0.86
Tropical Ocean 0.76 ± 0.36 0.77 ± 0.36 0.78 ± 0.36
Tropical 1.11 ± 1.20 1.19 ± 1.20 1.16 ± 1.20
Southern Land -0.00 ± 1.05 0.04 ± 1.04 0.06 ± 1.04
Ocean in South -1.57 ± 0.66 -1.52 ± 0.65 -1.51 ± 0.66
Southern -1.57 ± 1.70 -1.48 ± 1.69 -1.45 ± 1.69
Americas -0.47 ± 1.17 -0.43 ± 1.17 -0.58 ± 1.17
Atlantic and Arctic -0.61 ± 0.59 -0.58 ± 0.59 -0.60 ± 0.59
Eurasia and Africa -0.10 ± 1.11 -0.06 ± 1.10 -0.06 ± 1.08
Indian Ocean -0.53 ± 0.27 -0.52 ± 0.27 -0.51 ± 0.27
Asia -1.08 ± 1.35 -1.02 ± 1.34 -1.05 ± 1.36
Pacific Ocean -0.56 ± 0.62 -0.50 ± 0.62 -0.53 ± 0.62
All Land -1.65 ± 2.12 -1.51 ± 2.11 -1.70 ± 2.12
All Ocean -1.89 ± 1.12 -1.78 ± 1.11 -1.82 ± 1.11
Global -3.54 ± 3.21 -3.29 ± 3.19 -3.52 ± 3.20
North America -0.59 ± 0.54 -0.59 ± 0.56 -0.72 ± 0.57
Extratropical Eurasia -1.41 ± 1.53 -1.37 ± 1.52 -1.43 ± 1.52
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.79 ± 0.60 -0.77 ± 0.60 -0.80 ± 0.60
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.38 ± 0.63 -1.33 ± 0.63 -1.34 ± 0.63
Tropical and Southern Land 0.35 ± 1.35 0.45 ± 1.35 0.45 ± 1.35
Tropical Pacific 0.42 ± 0.24 0.43 ± 0.24 0.43 ± 0.24
Temperate Oceans -2.17 ± 0.82 -2.10 ± 0.82 -2.14 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.47 ± 0.36 -0.46 ± 0.35 -0.46 ± 0.35
Extratropical Oceans -2.64 ± 0.97 -2.56 ± 0.96 -2.60 ± 0.96
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.81 ± 0.87 -0.74 ± 0.86 -0.74 ± 0.86
Northern Boreal Land -0.91 ± 1.22 -0.88 ± 1.21 -0.94 ± 1.23
Northern Temperate Land -1.09 ± 1.04 -1.08 ± 1.05 -1.20 ± 1.03
Tropical land minus northern land 2.35 ± 1.85 2.37 ± 1.85 2.53 ± 1.85
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.20 ± 1.41 -1.15 ± 1.39 -1.23 ± 1.41
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.88 ± 1.63 -1.84 ± 1.63 -2.00 ± 1.61
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.38 ± 1.67 -1.29 ± 1.66 -1.27 ± 1.67
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.46 ± 2.20 -0.29 ± 2.19 -0.29 ± 2.19






Table 16: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2009 compared to CT2008, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2008 2001-2007
Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2008
North American Boreal 0.01 0.01 0.01
North American Temperate 1.84 1.84 1.97
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.11
South American Temperate 0.16 0.16 0.15
Northern Africa 0.16 0.16 0.18
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.13
Eurasia Boreal 0.17 0.17 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.73 2.63 2.64
Tropical Asia 0.55 0.53 0.51
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.10
Europe 1.58 1.57 1.64
North Pacific Temperate 0.11 0.11 0.14
West Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Northern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.02
North Atlantic Temperate 0.03 0.03 0.03
Atlantic Tropical 0.03 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.00
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.02 0.02 0.04
South Indian Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2008 2001-2007
Aggregated Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2008
Northern Land 6.34 6.24 6.36
Northern Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.19
Northern 6.49 6.39 6.55
Tropical Land 0.81 0.79 0.81
Tropical Ocean 0.06 0.06 0.07
Tropical 0.87 0.85 0.88
Southern Land 0.39 0.39 0.38
Ocean in South 0.01 0.01 0.01
Southern 0.40 0.40 0.39
Americas 2.12 2.11 2.24
Atlantic and Arctic 0.07 0.07 0.09
Eurasia and Africa 1.86 1.86 1.95
Indian Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.04
Asia 3.56 3.44 3.35
Pacific Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.15
All Land 7.54 7.41 7.55
All Ocean 0.22 0.22 0.28
Global 7.76 7.63 7.83
North America 1.86 1.86 1.98
Extratropical Eurasia 4.48 4.38 4.38
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.14 0.14 0.17
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.01
Tropical and Southern Land 1.21 1.18 1.19
Tropical Pacific 0.00 0.00 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.18
High Latitude Oceans 0.01 0.01 0.02
Extratropical Oceans 0.16 0.16 0.20
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.07 0.07 0.09
Northern Boreal Land 0.19 0.19 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.15 6.05 6.24
Tropical land minus northern land -5.53 -5.45 -5.55
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.20 0.19 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.29 6.19 6.41
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.40 0.40 0.39
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.28 1.25 1.28






Table 17: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2009 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2008 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2007B
North American Boreal -0.11 ± 0.36 -0.09 ± 0.37 -0.14 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.49 ± 0.41 -0.47 ± 0.44 -0.54 ± 0.52
South American Tropical 0.15 ± 0.68 0.16 ± 0.67 0.08 ± 0.68
South American Temperate -0.03 ± 0.78 -0.05 ± 0.78 -0.03 ± 0.77
Northern Africa 0.03 ± 0.50 0.01 ± 0.51 0.03 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.12 ± 0.63 0.18 ± 0.60 0.21 ± 0.59
Eurasia Boreal -0.80 ± 1.16 -0.76 ± 1.16 -0.64 ± 1.10
Eurasia Temperate -0.35 ± 0.55 -0.33 ± 0.55 -0.32 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.16 ± 0.20 0.19 ± 0.21 0.20 ± 0.20
Australia -0.09 ± 0.32 -0.10 ± 0.32 -0.10 ± 0.31
Europe -0.25 ± 0.76 -0.22 ± 0.76 -0.30 ± 0.79
North Pacific Temperate -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.41 ± 0.39 -0.39 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.03
East Pacific Tropical 0.40 ± 0.23 0.41 ± 0.22 0.38 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.56 ± 0.46 -0.50 ± 0.46 -0.49 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.29 ± 0.20 -0.27 ± 0.19 -0.27 ± 0.22
North Atlantic Temperate -0.37 ± 0.42 -0.35 ± 0.41 -0.40 ± 0.40
Atlantic Tropical 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.14 ± 0.25 -0.14 ± 0.24 -0.14 ± 0.23
Southern Ocean -0.19 ± 0.32 -0.17 ± 0.30 -0.22 ± 0.33
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.14 0.16 ± 0.15
South Indian Temperate -0.68 ± 0.24 -0.67 ± 0.24 -0.64 ± 0.25
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2008 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2007B
Northern Land -2.00 ± 1.63 -1.87 ± 1.65 -1.94 ± 1.64
Northern Oceans -1.07 ± 0.62 -1.03 ± 0.62 -1.05 ± 0.62
Northern -3.08 ± 2.24 -2.90 ± 2.25 -3.00 ± 2.22
Tropical Land 0.35 ± 0.86 0.36 ± 0.86 0.30 ± 0.87
Tropical Ocean 0.76 ± 0.36 0.78 ± 0.36 0.74 ± 0.38
Tropical 1.11 ± 1.20 1.14 ± 1.20 1.05 ± 1.21
Southern Land -0.00 ± 1.05 0.04 ± 1.04 0.08 ± 1.01
Ocean in South -1.57 ± 0.66 -1.48 ± 0.65 -1.49 ± 0.68
Southern -1.57 ± 1.70 -1.44 ± 1.69 -1.41 ± 1.68
Americas -0.47 ± 1.17 -0.45 ± 1.18 -0.63 ± 1.21
Atlantic and Arctic -0.61 ± 0.59 -0.56 ± 0.59 -0.62 ± 0.58
Eurasia and Africa -0.10 ± 1.11 -0.02 ± 1.10 -0.06 ± 1.11
Indian Ocean -0.53 ± 0.27 -0.51 ± 0.27 -0.48 ± 0.29
Asia -1.08 ± 1.35 -1.00 ± 1.36 -0.87 ± 1.30
Pacific Ocean -0.56 ± 0.62 -0.48 ± 0.62 -0.48 ± 0.64
All Land -1.65 ± 2.12 -1.47 ± 2.12 -1.56 ± 2.11
All Ocean -1.89 ± 1.12 -1.72 ± 1.11 -1.80 ± 1.14
Global -3.54 ± 3.21 -3.20 ± 3.20 -3.36 ± 3.19
North America -0.59 ± 0.54 -0.56 ± 0.58 -0.68 ± 0.64
Extratropical Eurasia -1.41 ± 1.53 -1.31 ± 1.53 -1.26 ± 1.50
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.79 ± 0.60 -0.76 ± 0.60 -0.78 ± 0.58
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.38 ± 0.63 -1.30 ± 0.63 -1.27 ± 0.65
Tropical and Southern Land 0.35 ± 1.35 0.40 ± 1.34 0.38 ± 1.33
Tropical Pacific 0.42 ± 0.24 0.43 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.25
Temperate Oceans -2.17 ± 0.82 -2.06 ± 0.82 -2.05 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.47 ± 0.36 -0.44 ± 0.34 -0.50 ± 0.38
Extratropical Oceans -2.64 ± 0.97 -2.51 ± 0.96 -2.55 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.81 ± 0.87 -0.70 ± 0.86 -0.75 ± 0.90
Northern Boreal Land -0.91 ± 1.22 -0.85 ± 1.22 -0.78 ± 1.17
Northern Temperate Land -1.09 ± 1.04 -1.02 ± 1.06 -1.16 ± 1.11
Tropical land minus northern land 2.35 ± 1.85 2.23 ± 1.86 2.25 ± 1.86
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.20 ± 1.41 -1.12 ± 1.40 -1.05 ± 1.35
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.88 ± 1.63 -1.78 ± 1.65 -1.94 ± 1.66
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.38 ± 1.67 -1.27 ± 1.66 -1.19 ± 1.65
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.46 ± 2.20 -0.30 ± 2.18 -0.37 ± 2.20






Table 18: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2009 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2008 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2007B
North American Boreal 0.01 0.01 0.01
North American Temperate 1.84 1.83 1.91
South American Tropical 0.10 0.10 0.12
South American Temperate 0.16 0.15 0.14
Northern Africa 0.16 0.15 0.17
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.12
Eurasia Boreal 0.17 0.17 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.73 2.54 2.53
Tropical Asia 0.55 0.52 0.47
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.09
Europe 1.58 1.57 1.63
North Pacific Temperate 0.11 0.11 0.17
West Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Northern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.03
North Atlantic Temperate 0.03 0.03 0.05
Atlantic Tropical 0.03 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.02 0.02 0.08
South Indian Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.02
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2008 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2009 CT2009 CT2007B
Northern Land 6.34 6.13 6.18
Northern Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.26
Northern 6.49 6.27 6.44
Tropical Land 0.81 0.77 0.75
Tropical Ocean 0.06 0.06 0.12
Tropical 0.87 0.83 0.88
Southern Land 0.39 0.38 0.35
Ocean in South 0.01 0.01 0.03
Southern 0.40 0.39 0.38
Americas 2.12 2.10 2.18
Atlantic and Arctic 0.07 0.07 0.12
Eurasia and Africa 1.86 1.85 1.92
Indian Ocean 0.03 0.03 0.10
Asia 3.56 3.33 3.18
Pacific Ocean 0.12 0.12 0.19
All Land 7.54 7.27 7.29
All Ocean 0.22 0.22 0.41
Global 7.76 7.49 7.70
North America 1.86 1.85 1.92
Extratropical Eurasia 4.48 4.28 4.26
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.14 0.14 0.23
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.03
Tropical and Southern Land 1.21 1.15 1.11
Tropical Pacific 0.00 0.00 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.15 0.15 0.26
High Latitude Oceans 0.01 0.01 0.03
Extratropical Oceans 0.16 0.15 0.29
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.07 0.07 0.16
Northern Boreal Land 0.19 0.18 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.15 5.94 6.07
Tropical land minus northern land -5.53 -5.36 -5.43
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.20 0.19 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.29 6.08 6.29
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.40 0.39 0.38
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.28 1.22 1.26






Table 19: Long-term mean natural flux (biosphere + ocean + fire) from CT2008 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2007 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2008 CT2008 CT2007B
North American Boreal -0.12 ± 0.37 -0.10 ± 0.37 -0.14 ± 0.37
North American Temperate -0.60 ± 0.44 -0.59 ± 0.44 -0.54 ± 0.52
South American Tropical 0.17 ± 0.67 0.14 ± 0.67 0.08 ± 0.68
South American Temperate -0.04 ± 0.78 -0.05 ± 0.78 -0.03 ± 0.77
Northern Africa 0.02 ± 0.50 0.01 ± 0.51 0.03 ± 0.50
Southern Africa 0.17 ± 0.62 0.19 ± 0.61 0.21 ± 0.59
Eurasia Boreal -0.82 ± 1.17 -0.81 ± 1.18 -0.64 ± 1.10
Eurasia Temperate -0.35 ± 0.54 -0.32 ± 0.54 -0.32 ± 0.54
Tropical Asia 0.19 ± 0.21 0.19 ± 0.21 0.20 ± 0.20
Australia -0.06 ± 0.31 -0.08 ± 0.31 -0.10 ± 0.31
Europe -0.25 ± 0.73 -0.24 ± 0.74 -0.30 ± 0.79
North Pacific Temperate -0.42 ± 0.39 -0.43 ± 0.39 -0.39 ± 0.39
West Pacific Tropical 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.03
East Pacific Tropical 0.41 ± 0.23 0.42 ± 0.23 0.38 ± 0.23
South Pacific Temperate -0.54 ± 0.46 -0.52 ± 0.46 -0.49 ± 0.46
Northern Ocean -0.28 ± 0.19 -0.28 ± 0.19 -0.27 ± 0.22
North Atlantic Temperate -0.38 ± 0.41 -0.36 ± 0.41 -0.40 ± 0.40
Atlantic Tropical 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16
South Atlantic Temperate -0.13 ± 0.25 -0.13 ± 0.24 -0.14 ± 0.23
Southern Ocean -0.18 ± 0.31 -0.17 ± 0.30 -0.22 ± 0.33
Indian Tropical 0.16 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.14 0.16 ± 0.15
South Indian Temperate -0.67 ± 0.24 -0.67 ± 0.24 -0.64 ± 0.25
Not optimized -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00 -0.00 ± 0.00
2001-2007 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2008 CT2008 CT2007B
Northern Land -2.14 ± 1.63 -2.06 ± 1.65 -1.94 ± 1.64
Northern Oceans -1.08 ± 0.62 -1.06 ± 0.62 -1.05 ± 0.62
Northern -3.23 ± 2.24 -3.13 ± 2.25 -3.00 ± 2.22
Tropical Land 0.39 ± 0.86 0.34 ± 0.86 0.30 ± 0.87
Tropical Ocean 0.78 ± 0.36 0.79 ± 0.36 0.74 ± 0.38
Tropical 1.16 ± 1.20 1.12 ± 1.20 1.05 ± 1.21
Southern Land 0.06 ± 1.04 0.06 ± 1.04 0.08 ± 1.01
Ocean in South -1.51 ± 0.66 -1.49 ± 0.66 -1.49 ± 0.68
Southern -1.45 ± 1.69 -1.43 ± 1.69 -1.41 ± 1.68
Americas -0.58 ± 1.17 -0.60 ± 1.18 -0.63 ± 1.21
Atlantic and Arctic -0.60 ± 0.59 -0.58 ± 0.58 -0.62 ± 0.58
Eurasia and Africa -0.06 ± 1.08 -0.04 ± 1.08 -0.06 ± 1.11
Indian Ocean -0.51 ± 0.27 -0.51 ± 0.27 -0.48 ± 0.29
Asia -1.05 ± 1.36 -1.02 ± 1.37 -0.87 ± 1.30
Pacific Ocean -0.53 ± 0.62 -0.51 ± 0.62 -0.48 ± 0.64
All Land -1.70 ± 2.12 -1.66 ± 2.12 -1.56 ± 2.11
All Ocean -1.82 ± 1.11 -1.76 ± 1.10 -1.80 ± 1.14
Global -3.52 ± 3.20 -3.43 ± 3.20 -3.36 ± 3.19
North America -0.72 ± 0.57 -0.69 ± 0.58 -0.68 ± 0.64
Extratropical Eurasia -1.43 ± 1.52 -1.37 ± 1.54 -1.26 ± 1.50
Temperate Northern Ocean -0.80 ± 0.60 -0.79 ± 0.60 -0.78 ± 0.58
Temperate Southern Ocean -1.34 ± 0.63 -1.32 ± 0.63 -1.27 ± 0.65
Tropical and Southern Land 0.45 ± 1.35 0.40 ± 1.35 0.38 ± 1.33
Tropical Pacific 0.43 ± 0.24 0.44 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.25
Temperate Oceans -2.14 ± 0.82 -2.11 ± 0.82 -2.05 ± 0.82
High Latitude Oceans -0.46 ± 0.35 -0.44 ± 0.34 -0.50 ± 0.38
Extratropical Oceans -2.60 ± 0.96 -2.55 ± 0.95 -2.55 ± 0.97
Tropical and Southern Oceans -0.74 ± 0.86 -0.70 ± 0.86 -0.75 ± 0.90
Northern Boreal Land -0.94 ± 1.23 -0.91 ± 1.24 -0.78 ± 1.17
Northern Temperate Land -1.20 ± 1.03 -1.15 ± 1.04 -1.16 ± 1.11
Tropical land minus northern land 2.53 ± 1.85 2.40 ± 1.87 2.25 ± 1.86
High North Ocean and Boreal Land -1.23 ± 1.41 -1.19 ± 1.42 -1.05 ± 1.35
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean -2.00 ± 1.61 -1.94 ± 1.62 -1.94 ± 1.66
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean -1.27 ± 1.67 -1.26 ± 1.66 -1.19 ± 1.65
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean -0.29 ± 2.19 -0.30 ± 2.19 -0.37 ± 2.20






Table 20: Long-term mean fossil fuel emissions used in CT2008 compared to CT2007B, including average fluxes computed over common time periods. The uncertainty listed is the one standard deviation level from the ensemble Kalman filter estimate. Units are PgC yr-1.
2001-2007 2001-2006
Transcom region CT2008 CT2008 CT2007B
North American Boreal 0.01 0.01 0.01
North American Temperate 1.97 1.96 1.91
South American Tropical 0.11 0.11 0.12
South American Temperate 0.15 0.15 0.14
Northern Africa 0.18 0.18 0.17
Southern Africa 0.13 0.13 0.12
Eurasia Boreal 0.10 0.10 0.10
Eurasia Temperate 2.64 2.55 2.53
Tropical Asia 0.51 0.50 0.47
Australia 0.10 0.10 0.09
Europe 1.64 1.63 1.63
North Pacific Temperate 0.14 0.13 0.17
West Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
East Pacific Tropical 0.00 0.00 0.00
South Pacific Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Northern Ocean 0.02 0.02 0.03
North Atlantic Temperate 0.03 0.03 0.05
Atlantic Tropical 0.03 0.03 0.03
South Atlantic Temperate 0.00 0.00 0.01
Southern Ocean 0.00 0.00 0.00
Indian Tropical 0.04 0.04 0.08
South Indian Temperate 0.01 0.01 0.02
Not optimized 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-2007 2001-2006
Aggregated Transcom region CT2008 CT2008 CT2007B
Northern Land 6.36 6.25 6.18
Northern Oceans 0.19 0.19 0.26
Northern 6.55 6.44 6.44
Tropical Land 0.81 0.79 0.75
Tropical Ocean 0.07 0.07 0.12
Tropical 0.88 0.86 0.88
Southern Land 0.38 0.38 0.35
Ocean in South 0.01 0.01 0.03
Southern 0.39 0.39 0.38
Americas 2.24 2.23 2.18
Atlantic and Arctic 0.09 0.09 0.12
Eurasia and Africa 1.95 1.94 1.92
Indian Ocean 0.04 0.04 0.10
Asia 3.35 3.25 3.18
Pacific Ocean 0.15 0.14 0.19
All Land 7.55 7.42 7.29
All Ocean 0.28 0.27 0.41
Global 7.83 7.69 7.70
North America 1.98 1.97 1.92
Extratropical Eurasia 4.38 4.28 4.26
Temperate Northern Ocean 0.17 0.17 0.23
Temperate Southern Ocean 0.01 0.01 0.03
Tropical and Southern Land 1.19 1.17 1.11
Tropical Pacific 0.01 0.01 0.01
Temperate Oceans 0.18 0.18 0.26
High Latitude Oceans 0.02 0.02 0.03
Extratropical Oceans 0.20 0.20 0.29
Tropical and Southern Oceans 0.09 0.08 0.16
Northern Boreal Land 0.12 0.11 0.12
Northern Temperate Land 6.24 6.14 6.07
Tropical land minus northern land -5.55 -5.46 -5.43
High North Ocean and Boreal Land 0.14 0.14 0.14
Northern Temperate Land and Ocean 6.41 6.31 6.29
Southern Temperate Land and Ocean 0.39 0.39 0.38
Tropical and Southern Land and Ocean 1.28 1.25 1.26