The Barrow Atmospheric Baseline Observatory, established in 1973, is located near sea level 8 km east of Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska at 71.32 degrees north. This facility is staffed by 2 engineers/scientists who often commute to work in winter on snow machines. Due to its unique location, dedicated and highly-trained staff, excellent power and communications infrastructure, the site is host to numerous cooperative research projects from around the world.
BRW's location receives minimal influence from anthropogenic effects. It is about 8 km northeast of the village of Utqiaġvik and has a prevailing east-northeast wind off the Beaufort Sea. It is attended at least 5 days a week for routine inspection and maintenance of the instrumentation. Although the measurements at BRW are made over open tundra, there are large lagoons and a number of lakes in the vicinity, and the Arctic Ocean is less than 3 km northwest of the site. Because of its proximity to these bodies of water and the fact that the prevailing winds are off the Beaufort Sea, BRW is perhaps best characterized as having an Arctic maritime climate affected by variations of weather and sea ice conditions in the Central Arctic.[coop_name] => NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division [project] => Array (  => Array (  => 7  => HATS In Situ Observatory  => 1 ) ) [active] => 1 [binned] => 0 )  => Array ( [num] => 75 [code] => MLO [name] => Mauna Loa, Hawaii [country] => United States [lat] => 19.5362 [lon] => -155.5763 [elev] => 3397.00 [lst2utc] => 10.0 [flag] => UNST0001.GIF [description] => Mauna Loa Observatory is located on the Island of Hawaii at an elevation of 3397 m on the northern flank of Mauna Loa volcano at 200 north. Established in 1957, Mauna Loa Observatory has grown to become the premier long-term atmospheric monitoring facility on earth and is the site where the ever-increasing concentrations of global atmospheric carbon dioxide were determined. The observatory consists of 10 buildings from which up to 250 different atmospheric parameters are measured by a complement of 12 NOAA/ESRL and other agency scientists and engineers. [coop_name] => NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division [project] => Array (  => Array (  => 7  => HATS In Situ Observatory  => 1 ) ) [active] => 1 [binned] => 0 )  => Array ( [num] => 80 [code] => NWR [name] => Niwot Ridge, Colorado [country] => United States [lat] => 40.0531 [lon] => -105.5864 [elev] => 3523.00 [lst2utc] => 7.0 [flag] => UNST0001.GIF [description] => Niwot Ridge is located approximately 35 km west of Boulder, Colorado, with the entire study site lying above 3000 m elevation. There is a cirque glacier (Arikaree Glacier), extensive alpine tundra, a variety of glacial landforms, glacial lakes and moraines, cirques and talus slopes, patterned ground, and permafrost. The research area is bounded on the west by the Continental Divide, with runoff on the two sides being destined for the Colorado and Mississippi Rivers. The alpine study area is reached by an unimproved road from the Mountain Research Station (2895 m) which leads to within 2 km of the main tundra research site, the Saddle (3528 m). Niwot Ridge, including the main alpine study site, is part of the Roosevelt National Forest and has been designated a Biosphere Reserve (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO) and an Experimental Ecology Reserve (USDA Forest Service).
The Niwot Ridge web site is at http://culter.colorado.edu/NWT/ [coop_name] => University of Colorado/INSTAAR [project] => Array (  => Array (  => 7  => HATS In Situ Observatory  => 1 ) ) [active] => 1 [binned] => 0 )  => Array ( [num] => 112 [code] => SMO [name] => Tutuila [country] => American Samoa [lat] => -14.2474 [lon] => -170.5644 [elev] => 42.00 [lst2utc] => 11.0 [flag] => AMSA0001.GIF [description] => The Samoa Observatory is located on the northeastern tip of Tutuila island, American Samoa, on a ridge overlooking the South Pacific Ocean. Established in 1974 on a 26.7 acre site, the observatory is one of four GMD Baseline Observatories. Cape Matatula is approx. 1 km from the village of Tula. Prevailing winds are marine. Since its construction, the Samoa Observatory has survived two major hurricanes with only minor damage. Two staff operate the year-round facility commuting to work. This Observatory has the distinction of obtaining 30% of its daytime power from solar panels. [coop_name] => NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division [project] => Array (  => Array (  => 7  => HATS In Situ Observatory  => 1 ) ) [active] => 1 [binned] => 0 )  => Array ( [num] => 113 [code] => SPO [name] => South Pole, Antarctica [country] => United States [lat] => -89.9800 [lon] => -24.8000 [elev] => 2810.00 [lst2utc] => -12.0 [flag] => ANTA0001.GIF [description] => The South Pole Observatory was established at the geographic South Pole in 1957, as part of the International Geophysical Year. The South Pole Observatory (SPO) is one of four atmospheric baseline observatories in the world operated by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory - Global Monitoring Division (GMD). The National Science Foundation provides the infrastructure for the NOAA/ESRL scientific operations including a state of the art science building named the Atmospheric Research Observatory (ARO) opened in 1997. ARO was built to house current atmospheric research and replaced NOAA's Clean Air Facility, which was in operation from 1977 to 1997. Two GMD observatory staff spend one year tours of duty at the station which includes a 9 month period of isolation and six months of darkness. Atmospheric data has been collected from South Pole since the International Geophysical Year (IGY), 1957 - 1958. [coop_name] => National Science Foundation [project] => Array (  => Array (  => 7  => HATS In Situ Observatory  => 1 ) ) [active] => 1 [binned] => 0 )  => Array ( [num] => 118 [code] => SUM [name] => Summit [country] => Greenland [lat] => 72.5962 [lon] => -38.4220 [elev] => 3209.54 [lst2utc] => 2.0 [flag] => GRLD0001.GIF [description] =>
The Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit) on the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet (3200 m above sea level) was established by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Danish Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland to provide year-round, long-term measurements for monitoring and investigations of the Arctic environment. The multidisciplinary facility is home to several year-round investigations as well as numerous seasonal campaigns which take advantage of the unique location of the observatory. GEOSummit provides investigators ease of access to the highest site north of the Arctic Circle. Since 1989, when the GISP II ice-coring activities began, the site has hosted numerous atmospheric and glaciological investigations. Following two trial winter over periods (1997-1998, and 2000-2002), the NSF Long Term Observatory (LTO) program committed funding to maintain year-round measurements of key baseline variables of climate change at the site. In addition, several programs funded through European agencies have a year round presence at the site.
Logistical support at Summit is provided by CH2M HILL Polar Services, under contract to NSF. NOAA has maintained a presence at Summit since the mid 1990s, begun mainly to conduct greenhouse gas measurements, with NOAA and NSF technicians working together to ensure continuity of data. From 2005 to present, NOAA Corps Officers have served as technicians during various phases throughout the year. Beginning in August of 2009, NOAA staff became a year-round permanent addition to the station crew, ensuring the long-term continuity of NOAA data and providing additional scientific support for the site.
The NOAA Summit Atmospheric Baseline Observatory was downgraded from its status as a full “Observatory” to a “Sampling Site” on August 1, 2017. NOAA technician time and cargo intensive projects in the NOAA measurement suite were removed from the site. However, surface ozone monitoring instrumentation, a basic meteorology system, aerosol instrumentation, and halocarbon and greenhouse gas flask sampling capabilities continue to operate at the site in partnership with the NSF. The downgrade follows a Global Monitoring Division-wide evaluation of scientific goals and global observing network capabilities that resulted in realignment to best meet NOAA’s mission and the nation’s scientific needs.
All data from Summit are available on the Global Monitoring Division’s website: https://esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/dv/data/index.php?site=sum[coop_name] => National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs [project] => Array (  => Array (  => 7  => HATS In Situ Observatory  => 3 ) ) [active] => 0 [binned] => 0 ) )