Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2010 Update
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010
World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 52
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
United Nations Environment Programme
World Meteorological Organization
Additional Topics: Global Ozone Network
The first instrument for routinely monitoring total ozone was developed by Gordon M.B. Dobson in the United Kingdom in the 1920s. The instrument, called a Féry spectrometer, made its measurements by examining the wavelength spectrum of solar ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) using a photographic plate. A small network of instruments distributed around Europe allowed Dobson to make important discoveries about how total ozone varies with location and time. In the 1930s a new instrument was developed by Dobson, now called a Dobson spectrophotometer, which precisely measures the intensity of sunlight at two ultraviolet wavelengths: one that is strongly absorbed by ozone and one that is weakly absorbed. The difference in light intensity at the two wavelengths provides a measure of total ozone above the instrument location.
A global network of total-ozone observing stations was established in 1957 as part of the International Geophysical Year. Today, there are about 100 sites located around the world ranging from South Pole, Antarctica (90°S), to Ellesmere Island, Canada (83°N), that routinely measure total ozone. The accuracy of these observations is maintained by regular instrument calibrations and intercomparisons. Data from the network have been essential for understanding the effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances on the global ozone layer, starting before the launch of space-based ozone-measuring instruments and continuing to the present day. Ground-based instruments with excellent long-term stability and accuracy are now routinely used to help calibrate space-based observations of total ozone.
Pioneering scientists have traditionally been honored by having units of measure named after them. Accordingly, the unit of measure for total ozone is called the "Dobson unit" (see Q4: How is total ozone uniform over the globe? ).