Alexander, M., J. Yin, G. Branstator, A. Capotondi, C. Cassou, R. Cullather, Y.-O. Kwon, J. Norris, J. Scott, and Ilana Wainer, 2006: Extratropical Atmosphere-Ocean Variability in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2496-2525, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3743.1.
Extratropical atmosphere-ocean variability over the Northern Hemisphere of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is examined and compared to observations. Results are presented for an extended control integration with a horizontal resolution of T85 (1.4°) for the atmosphere and land and 1° for the ocean and sea ice.
Several atmospheric phenomena are investigated including storms, clouds, and patterns of variability, and their relationship to both tropical and extratropical SST anomalies. The mean storm track, the leading modes of storm track variability, and the relationship of the latter to tropical and midlatitude sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are fairly well simulated in CCSM3. The positive correlations between extratropical SST and low-cloud anomalies in summer are reproduced by the model, but there are clear biases in the relationship between clouds and the near-surface meridional wind. The model accurately represents the circulation anomalies associated with the jet stream waveguide, the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern, and fluctuations associated with the Aleutian low, including how the latter two features are influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). CCSM3 has a reasonable depiction of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), but it is not strongly connected to tropical Pacific SSTs as found in nature. There are biases in the position of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and other Atlantic regimes, as the mean Icelandic low in CCSM3 is stronger and displaced southeastward relative to observations.
Extratropical ocean processes in CCSM3, including upper-ocean mixing, thermocline variability, and extratropical to tropical flow within the thermocline, also influence climate variability. As in observations, the model includes the "reemergence mechanism" where seasonal variability in mixed layer depth (MLD) allows SST anomalies to recur in consecutive winters without persisting through the intervening summer. Remote wind stress curl anomalies drive thermocline variability in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension region, which influences SST, surface heat flux anomalies, and the local wind field. The interior ocean pathways connecting the subtropics to the equator in both the Pacific and Atlantic are less pronounced in CCSM3 than in nature or in ocean-only simulations forced by observed atmospheric conditions, and the flow from the subtropical North Atlantic does not appear to reach the equator through either the western boundary or interior pathways.