Hurrell, J. W., M. P. Hoerling, and C. K. Folland, 2002: Climatic variability over the North Atlantic. In Meteorology at the Millennium, R. P. Pearce (Ed.), Academic Press, 143-151.
This chapter begins with a broad review of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the mechanisms that might influence its phase and amplitude on decadal and longer timescales. New results are presented which suggest an important role for tropical ocean forcing of the unprecedented trend in the wintertime NAO index over the past several decades. We conclude with a brief discussion of a significant recent change in the pattern of the summertime atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic.