The ESRL website will be unavailable for 24 hours starting Friday, March 6th at 5:00pm MT due to building maintenance.

Meehl, G. A., T. Karl, D. R. Easterling, S. Changnon, R. Pielke Jr., D. Changnon, J. Evans, P. Y. Groisman, T. R. Knutson, K. E. Kunkel, L.O. Mearns, C. Parmesan, R. Pulwarty, T. Root, R. T. Sykes, P. Whetton, and F. Zwiers, 2000: An introduction to trends in extreme weather and climate events: Observations, socioeconomic impacts, terrestrial ecological impacts, and model projections. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 81, 413-416.


Weather and climatic extremes can have serious and damaging effects on human society and infrastructure as well as on ecosystems and wildlife. Thus, they are usually the main focus of attention of the news media in reports on climate. There are some indications from observations concerning how climatic extremes may have changed in the past. Climate models show how they could change in the future either due to natural climate fluctuations or under conditions of greenhouse gas-induced warming. These observed and modeled changes relate directly to the understanding of socioeconomic and ecological impacts related to extremes.