20th Century Reanalysis

Publications that use the data

  • Abarca-del-Rio, R., D. Gambis, and D. Salstein, 2012: Interdecadal oscillations in atmospheric angular moment variations. J. Geodetic Sci., 2, 42-52, doi: 10.2478/v10156-011-0025-8.
  • Allan, R., P. Brohan, G.P. Compo, R. Stone, J. Luterbacher, and S. Bronnimman, 2011: The International Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) initiative. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 92, 1421-1425. doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3218.1.
  • Arndt, D. S., J. Blunden, K.M. Willett, et al., 2012: State of the Climate in 2011. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, S1-S282. doi: 10.1175/2012BAMSStateoftheClimate..
  • Baird, M.E., J.D. Everett, and I.M. Suthers, 2011: Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938-1942 using synoptic oceanographic conditions. Deep Sea Res. II, 58:699-711 doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.06.002.
  • Barbero, R., and V. Moron, 2011: Seasonal to decadal modulation of the impact of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on New Caledonia (SW Pacific) rainfall (1950-2010). J. Geophys. Res., 116, D23111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD01657.
  • Barriopedro D., E.M. Fischer, Luterbacher J., Trigo R.M., and R. García-Herrera, 2011: The Hot Summer of 2010: Redrawing the Temperature Record Map of Europe, Science, 332, 220-224, doi:10.1126/science.1201224.
  • Belleflamme, A., X. Fettweis, C. Lang, and M. Erpicum, 2013: Current and future atmospheric circulation at 500 hPa over Greenland simulated by the CMIP3 and CMIP5 global models, Climate Dynamics, 41, 2061-2080, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1538-2.
  • Bertin, X., E. Prouteau, and C. Letetrel, 2013: A significant increase in wave height in the North Atlantic Ocean over the 20th century. Global and Planetary Change, 106, 77-83, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.03.009.
  • Bett, P. E., Thornton,H.E. and Clark, R.T. 2013: European wind variability over 140 yr. Adv. Sci. Res., 10, 51-58. doi: 10.5194/asr-10-51-2013.
  • Bigg, G. R. and D.J. Wilton, 2014: Iceberg risk in the Titanic year of 1912: was it exceptional?. Weather, 69: 100-104. doi: 10.1002/wea.2238.
  • Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, and M. O. Baringer, Eds., 2011: State of the Climate in 2010. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, S1-S236. doi:10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1.
  • Brönnimann, S., G.P. Compo, R. Spadin, R. Allan, and W. Adam, 2011: Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis. Clim. Past, 7, 265-276, doi:10.5194/cp-7-265-2011.
  • Brönnimann, S., and G.P. Compo, 2011: Ozone highs and associated flow features in the first half of the twentieth century in different data sets.Meteorol. Zeit., 21, 49-59, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2012/0284.
  • Brönnimann, S., T. Griesser, and A. Stickler, 2010: A gridded monthly upper-air data set from 1918 to 1957. Cli. Dyn., 38, 475-493, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0940-x.
  • Brönnimann, S., A.N. Grant, G.P. Compo, T. Ewen, T. Griesser, A. M. Fischer, M. Schraner, and A. Stickler, 2012: A multi-data set comparison of the vertical structure of temperature variability and change over the Arctic during the past 100 years.Cli. Dyn., 39, 1577-1598, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1291-6.
  • Brönnimann, S., O. Martius, H. von Waldow, C. Welker, J. Luterbacher, G.P. Compo, P.D. Sardeshmukh, and T. Usbeck, 2012: Extreme winds at northern mid-latitudes since 1871. Meteorol. Zeit., 21, 13-27, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2012/0337.
  • Brönnimann, S., A. Stickler, T. Griesser, A. M. Fischer, A. Grant, T. Ewen, T. Zhou, M. Schraner, E. Rozanov, and T. Peter, 2009: Variability of large-scale atmospheric circulation indices for the Northern Hemisphere during the past 100 years. Meteorol. Z., 18, 379-396, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0389.
  • Brown, P. J., and A.T. DeGaetano, 2013: Trends in U.S. Surface Humidity, 1930-2010. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 147-163, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-035.
  • Bye, J., K. Fraedrich, E. Kirk, S. Schubert, and X. Zhu, 2011: Random walk lengths of about 30 years in global climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05806, doi:10.1029/2010GL046333.
  • Calafat, F. M., D. P. Chambers, and M. N. Tsimplis, 2012: Mechanisms of decadal sea level variability in the eastern North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09022, doi:10.1029/2012JC008285.
  • Cai, W., T. Cowan, and M. Thatcher, 2012: Rainfall reductions over the Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: the role of subtropical dry zone expansion. Scientific Reports, 2, 702, doi:10.1038/srep00702.
  • Cao, J., J. Hu, and Y. Tao, 2012: An index for the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D18108, doi:10.1029/2012JD017841.
  • Carton, J.A., H.F. Seidel, and B.S. Giese, 2012: Detecting historical ocean climate variability, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C02023, doi:10.1029/2011JC007401.
  • Chakravotry, S., J.S. Chowdary, and C. Gnanaseelan, 2013: Spring asymmetric mode in the tropical Indian Ocean: role of El Nino and IOD, Climate Dynamics, 40, 1467-1481, doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1340-1.
  • Chelliah, M., W. Ebisuzaki, S. Weaver, and A. Kumar, 2011: Evaluating the tropospheric variability in National Centers for Environmental Prediction's climate forecast system reanalysis, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D17107, doi:10.1029/2011JD015707.
  • Chen, H.W., Q. Zhang, H. Kornich, and D. Chen, 2013: A robust mode of climate variability in the Arctic: The Barents Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50551.
  • Chernokulsky, A., and I.I. Mokhov, 2012: Climatology of Total Cloudiness in the Arctic: An Intercomparison of Observations and Reanalyses. Advances in Meteorol., 2012, Article ID 542093, doi:10.1155/2012/542093
  • Chernokulsky, A., I.I. Mokhov, and N. Nikitina, 2013: Winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia related to the Siberian High during 1966-2010. Env. Res. Lett., 8, L045012, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/045012.
  • Chowdary, J. S., S.-P. Xie, H. Tokinaga, Y. M. Okumura, H. Kubota, N. Johnson, and X.-T. Zheng, 2012: Interdecadal Variations in ENSO Teleconnection to the Indo-Western Pacific for 1870-2007*. J. Climate, 25, 1722-1744, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00070.1.
  • Chowdary, J. S., N. John, C. Gnanaseelan, 2014: Interannual variability of surface air-temperature over India: impact of ENSO and Indian Ocean Sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 34: 416-429, doi: 10.1002/joc.3695.
  • Compo, G.P., J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R.J. Allan, X. Yin, B.E. Gleason, R.S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Brönnimann, M. Brunet, R.I. Crouthamel, A.N. Grant, P.Y. Groisman, P.D. Jones, M. Kruk, A.C. Kruger, G.J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H.Y. Mok, Ř. Nordli, T.F. Ross, R.M. Trigo, X.L. Wang, S.D. Woodruff, and S.J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1-28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.
  • Compo, G.P., P.D. Sardeshmukh, J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Jones, P. Brohan, and C. McColl, 2013: Independent confirmation of global land warming with the use of station temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 12, 3170-3174, doi:10.1002/grl.50425. Auxiliary Material. Open Access.
  • Cook, B.I., R. Seager, and R.L. Miller, 2010: Atmospheric circulation anomalies during two persistent north american droughts: 1932-1939 and 1948-1957. Clim. Dyn., 36, 2339-2355. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0807-1.
  • Cook, B.I., R. Seager, and R.L. Miller, 2011: On the causes and dynamics of the early twentieth century North American pluvial. J. Climate, 24, 5043-5060, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4201.1.
  • Cropper, T. E., and E. Hanna, 2013: An analysis of the climate of Macaronesia, 1865-2012. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 604-622, doi: 10.1002/joc.3710.
  • Dangendor, S., S. Muller-Navarra, J. Jensen, F. Schenk, T. Wahl, and R. Weisse, 2014: North Sea storminess from a novel storm surge record since AD 1843. J. Climate, in press, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00427.1.
  • Dangendor, S., C. Mudersbach, T. Wahl, and J. Jensen, 2013: Characteristics of intra-,inter-annual and decadal sea-level and the role of meteorological forcing. Ocean Dynamics, 63, 209-224, doi:10.1007/s10236-013-0598-0.
  • Davy, R. and I. Esau, 2014: Surface air temperature variability in global climate models. Atmosph. Sci. Lett., 15, 13-20, doi: 10.1002/asl2.456.
  • Dawson, A., T. N. Palmer, and S. Corti, 2012: Simulating regime structures in weather and climate prediction models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21805, doi:10.1029/2012GL053284.
  • de Bruin, H. and H. Van den Dool, 2010: De storm van 1894: Een ramp voor Scheveningen, en een test case voor moderne meteorologen.Zenit, August, 316-320.
  • Diamond, H. J., A. M. Lorrey, and J.A. Renwick, 2013: A Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Climatology and Linkages to the El Nińo-Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 26, 3-25. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00077.1.
  • Diaz, H. F., T. W. Giambelluca, 2012: Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns associated with high and low rainfall regimes in the Hawaiian Islands region on multiple time scales, Global and Planetary Change, 98-99, 97-108, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.08.011.
  • Diaz, H. F., T.W. Swetname, 2013: The Wildfires of 1910: Climatology of an Extreme Early Twentieth-Century Event and Comparison with More Recent Extremes, Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 94, 1361-1370. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00150.1.
  • DiNapoli, S. M. and V. Misra, 2012: Reconstructing the 20th century high-resolution climate of the southeastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D19113, doi:10.1029/2012JD018303.
  • Dole, R., M. Hoerling, J. Perlwitz, J. Eischeid, P. Pegion, T. Zhang, X.-W. Quan, T. Xu, and D. Murray, 2011: Was there a basis for anticipating the 2010 Russian heat wave? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06702, doi:10.1029/2010GL046582.
  • Donat, M. G., D. Renggli,S. Wild, L. V. Alexander, G. C. Leckebusch, and U. Ulbrich, 2011: Reanalysis suggests long-term upward trends in European storminess since 1871. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14703, doi:10.1029/2011GL047995.
  • Driscoll, S., A. Bozzo, L. J. Gray, A. Robock, and G. Stenchikov, 2012: Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D17105, doi:10.1029/2012JD017607.
  • Du, Y., W. Cai, and Y. Wu, 2013: A New Type of the Indian Ocean Dipole since the Mid-1970s. J. Climate, 26, 959-972, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00047.1.
  • Dunstone, N.J., D.M. Smith, B.B.B. Booth, L. Hermanson, and R. Eade, 2013: Anthropogenic aerosol forcing of Atlantic tropical storms. Nature Geoscience, 6, 534-539, doi:10.1038/ngeo1854.
  • El Fadli, K.I., R.S Cerveny, C.C. Burt, P. Eden, D. Parker, M. Brunet, T.C. Peterson, G. Mordacchini, V. Pelino, P. Bessemoulin, J.L. Stella, F. Driouech, M.M. Abdel wahab, and M.B. Pace, 2012: World Meteorological Organization assessment of the purported world record 58C temperature extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922). Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 94 199-204, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1.
  • Elsner, J.B., R.E. Hodges, and T.H. Jagger, 2012: Spatial grids for hurricance climate research. Cli. Dyn., 39, 21-36, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1066-5.
  • Emanuel, K., 2010: Tropical Cyclone Activity Downscaled from NOAA-CIRES Reanalysis, 1908-1958. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 2, Art. #1, 12 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.1.
  • England, M.H., S. McGregor, P. Spence, G.A. Meehl, A. Timmerman, W. Cai, A. S. Gupta, M.J. McPhaden, A. Purich, A. Santoso, 2014: Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change, in press, doi:10.1038/nclimate2106.
  • Fairchild, I. J. and A. Baker, 2012: References, in Speleothem Science: From Process to Past Environments, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi:10.1002/9781444361094.refs.
  • Fasullo, J., 2012: A mechanism for land-ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate. Cli. Dyn., 39, 1137-1147, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1270-3.
  • Feng, M., C. Böning, A. Biastoch, E. Behrens, E. Weller, and Y. Masumoto, 2011: The reversal of the multi-decadal trends of the equatorial Pacific easterly winds, and the Indonesian Throughflow and Leeuwin Current transports, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11604, doi:10.1029/2011GL047291.
  • Feng, S., and Q. Fu, 2013:Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10081-10094, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10081-2013.
  • Ferguson, C. R., E. F. Wood, and R. K. Vinukollu, 2012: A Global Intercomparison of Modeled and Observed Land-Atmosphere Coupling. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 749-784, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-0119.1.
  • Ferguson, C. R. and G. Villarini, 2012: Detecting inhomogeneities in the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over the central United States, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05123 doi:10.1029/2011JD016988.
  • Ferguson, C. R. and G. Villarini, 2013: An evaluation of the statistical homogeneity of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis, Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1996-1.
  • Fyfe, J. C., N. P. Gillett, and G. J. Marshall, 2012: Human influence on extratropical Southern Hemisphere summer precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L23711, doi:10.1029/2012GL054199.
  • Galbraith, P.S., P. Larouche, J. Chasse, and B. Petrie, 2012: Sea-surface temperature in relation to air temperature in the Gulf of St. Lawrence: Interdecadal variability and long term trends, Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 77-80, 10-20, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.04.001.
  • García-Reyes, M., W. J. Sydeman, B. A. Black, R. R. Rykaczewski, D. S. Schoeman, S. A. Thompson, and S. J. Bograd (2013), Relative influence of oceanic and terrestrial pressure systems in driving upwelling-favorable winds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5311-5315, doi:10.1002/2013GL057729.
  • Gastineau, G., F.D'Andrea, C. Frankignoul, 2012: Atmospheric response to the North Atlantic Ocean variability on seasonal to decadal time scales, Cli. Dyn., 40, 2311-2330, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1333-0.
  • Giese, B.S., G.P. Compo, N.C. Slowey, P.D. Sardeshmukh, J.A. Carton, S. Ray, and J.S. Whitaker, 2010:The 1918/1919 El Nińo. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 177-183, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2903.
  • Giese, B.S., and S. Ray, 2011: El Nińo variability in simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) 1871-2008. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans., 116, C02024, doi:10.1029/2010JC006695.
  • Grainger, S., C. S. Frederiksen, and X. Zheng, 2013: Modes of interannual variability of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation in CMIP3 models: assessment and projections, Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1659-7.
  • Grodsky, S.A., J.A. Carton, S. Nigam, and Y. M. Okumura, 2012: Tropical Atlantic Biases in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25, 3684-3701, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00315.1.
  • Grunseich, G., B. Subrahmanyam, V.S.N. Murty, and B.S. Giese, 2011: Sea surface salinity variability during the Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO events in the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11013, doi:10.1029/2011JC007456.
  • Hakkinen, S., P.B. Rhines, and D.L. Worthen, 2011: Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability. Science, 334, 655-569, doi:10.1126/science.1205683.
  • Hanna, E., P. Huybrechts, J. Cappelen, K. Steffen, R.C. Bales, E. Burgess, J. McConnell, J.P. Steffensen, M. Van den Broeke, L. Wake, G. Bigg, M. Griffiths, and D. Savas, 2011: Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance 1870 to 2010 based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and links with global climate forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D24121, doi:10.1029/2011JD016387.
  • Hao, Z., J. Zheng, Q. Ge, W.C. Wang WC, 2011: Historical analogues of the 2008 extreme snow event over Central and Southern China. Clim. Res., 50, 161-170, doi:10.3354/cr01052.
  • Harvey, B. J., L. C. Shaffrey, T. J. Woollings, G. Zappa, and K. I. Hodges. 2012: How large are projected 21st century storm track changes?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18707, doi:10.1029/2012GL052873.
  • Hastenrath, S., and D. Polzin, 2012:Climatic variations in Central America and the Caribbean. Int. J. Climatology, in press, doi:10.1002/joc.3515.
  • He, S., H. Wang, 2013: Oscillating Relationship between the East Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO. J. Climate, 26, 9819-9838, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00174.1.
  • Hoerling, M., J. Eischeid, J. Perlwitz, X. Quan, T. Zhang, and P. Pegion, 2012: On the Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought. J. Climate, 25, 2146-2161. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00296.1.
  • Hoy, A., M. Sepp, J. Matschullat, 2012: Atmospheric circulation variability in Europe and northern Asia (1901 to 2010), Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 113, 105-126, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0770-3.
  • Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, R. Rimbu, S. Chelcea, and M. Dima, 2012: Interannual to decadal summer drought variability over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface temperature . Cli. Dyn., 38, 363-377, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1028-y.
  • Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, N. Rimbu, and S. Chelcea, 2012: Interannual Variability of Rhine River Streamflow and its Relationship with Large-Scale Anomaly Patterns in Spring and Autumn. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 172-188, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-063.1.
  • Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, N. Rimbu, and P. Scholz, 2012: Dominant modes of Diurnal Temperature Range variability over Europe and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature anomaly patterns. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D15111, doi:10.1029/2011JD016669.
  • Izumo, T., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, J.-J. Luo, T. Yamagata, and G. Madec, 2013: Influence of Indian Ocean Dipole and Pacific recharge on following year's El Nińo: interdecadal robustness. Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1628-1.
  • Jones, P. D., Harpham, C. and Briffa, K. R. (2012), Lamb weather types derived from reanalysis products. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 1129-1139, doi:10.1002/joc.3498.
  • Kent, E. C., Fangohr, S. and Berry, D. I., 2012: A comparative assessment of monthly mean wind speed products over the global ocean. Int. J. Climatol., in press, doi:10.1002/joc.3606.
  • Kent, E. C., Berry, D. I., Prytherch, J. and Roberts, J. B., 2013: A comparison of global marine surface-specific humidity datasets from in situ observations and atmospheric reanalysis. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 355-376, doi: 10.1002/joc.3691.
  • Kent, E. C., N. A. Rayner, D. I. Berry, M. Saunby, B. I. Moat, J. J. Kennedy, and D. E. Parker, 2013: Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: The HadNMAT2 data set. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 1281-1298, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50152.
  • Kirchner-Bossi, N., L. Prieto, R. Garcia-Herrera, L. Carro-Calvo, and S. Salcedo-Sanz, 2013: Multi-decadal variability in a centennial reconstruction of daily wind. Applied Energy, 105, 30-46, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.072.
  • Klingaman, N. P., Woolnough, S. J. and Syktus, J., 2012: On the drivers of inter-annual and decadal rainfall variability in Queensland, Australia. Int. J. Climatol, 33, 2413-2430, doi:10.1002/joc.3593.
  • Klotzbach, P. J., 2011: A simplified Atlantic basin seasonal hurricane prediction scheme from 1 August, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16710, doi:10.1029/2011GL048603.
  • Krueger, O., F. Schenk, F. Feser, and R. Weisse, 2012: Inconsistencies between long-term trends in storminess derived from the 20CR reanalysis and observations. J. Climate, 26, 868-874, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00309.1.
  • Kunkel, K. E., D. R. Easterling, D. A. R. Kristovich, B. Gleason, L. Stoecker, and R. Smith, 2012: Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 1131-1141. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-0108.1.
  • Lavers, D. A., R. P. Allan, E. F. Wood, G. Villarini, D. J. Brayshaw and A. J. Wade, 2011: Winter floods in Britain are connected to atmospheric rivers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23803, doi:10.1029/2011GL049783.
  • Lavers, D. A., G. Villarini, R. P. Allan, E. F. Wood, and A. J. Wade, 2012: The detection of atmospheric rivers in atmospheric reanalyses and their links to British winter floods and the large-scale climatic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20106, doi:10.1029/2012JD018027.
  • Lee, M.-Y., and H.-H. Hsu, 2013: Identification of the Eurasian-North Pacific Multidecadal Oscillation and Its Relationship to the AMO. J. Climate, 26, 8139-8153, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00041.1.
  • Lee, S.-K., W. Park, E. van Sebille, M. O. Baringer, C. Wang, D. B. Enfield, S. Yeager, and B. P. Kirtman, 2011: What Caused the Significant Increase in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content Since the mid-20th Century? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17607, doi:10.1029/2011GL048856.
  • Lehner, F., C.C. Raible, D. Hofer, and T.F. Stocker, 2011: The freshwater balance of polar regions in transient simulations from 1500 to 2100 AD using a comprehensive coupled climate model. Cli. Dyn., in press.
  • L'Heureux, M.L., S. Lee, and B. Lyon, 2013: Recent multidecadal strengthening of the Walker circulation across the tropical Pacific. Nature Clim. Change, in press, doi:10.1038/nclimate1840.
  • Li, Y., and N.-C. Lau, 2012: Impact of ENSO on the Atmospheric Variability over the North Atlantic in Late Winter-Role of Transient Eddies. J. Climate,, 25, 320-342, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00037.1.
  • Li, Y., L. R. Leung, 2013: Potential Impacts of the Arctic on Interannual and Interdecadal Summer Precipitation over China. J. Climate, 26, 899-917, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00075.1.
  • Liu, C., and L. Wu, 2012: An intensification trend of South Pacific Mode Water subduction rates over the 20th century. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C07009, doi:10.1029/2011JC007755.
  • Liu, H., C. Wang, S.-K. Lee, and D. Enfield, 2012: Atlantic Warm-Pool Variability in the IPCC AR4 CGCM Simulations. J. Climate, 25, 5612-5628. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00376.1.
  • Liu, J., M. Song, Y. Hu, and X. Ren, 2012: Changes in the strength of the Hadley Circulation since 1871. Climate of the Past, 8, 1169-1175, doi:10.5194/cp-8-1169-2012.
  • Lohmann, G., K.H. Wiltshire, 2012: Winter atmospheric circulation signature for the timing of the spring bloom of diatoms in the North Sea. Mar. Biol., 159, 2573-2581. doi:10.1007/s00227-012-1993-7.
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