We have transitioned the data files from netCDF3 to netCDF4. As a result, the files are compressed instead of being packed with a scale and offset. As with any netCDF4 file, the user interface will perform the uncompression. We expect the files to be read faster, depending on the application you are using. Please let us know if you run into any issues.

20th Century Reanalysis

Publications that use the data

  • Abarca-del-Rio, R., D. Gambis, and D. Salstein, 2012: Interdecadal oscillations in atmospheric angular moment variations. J. Geodetic Sci., 2, 42-52, doi: 10.2478/v10156-011-0025-8.
  • Allan, R., P. Brohan, G.P. Compo, R. Stone, J. Luterbacher, and S. Bronnimman, 2011: The International Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) initiative. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 92, 1421-1425. doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3218.1.
  • Arndt, D. S., J. Blunden, K.M. Willett, et al., 2012: State of the Climate in 2011. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, S1-S282. doi: 10.1175/2012BAMSStateoftheClimate..
  • Baird, M.E., J.D. Everett, and I.M. Suthers, 2011: Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938-1942 using synoptic oceanographic conditions. Deep Sea Res. II, 58:699-711 doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.06.002.
  • Barbero, R., and V. Moron, 2011: Seasonal to decadal modulation of the impact of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on New Caledonia (SW Pacific) rainfall (1950-2010). J. Geophys. Res., 116, D23111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD01657.
  • Barriopedro D., E.M. Fischer, Luterbacher J., Trigo R.M., and R. García-Herrera, 2011: The Hot Summer of 2010: Redrawing the Temperature Record Map of Europe, Science, 332, 220-224, doi:10.1126/science.1201224.
  • Belleflamme, A., X. Fettweis, C. Lang, and M. Erpicum, 2013: Current and future atmospheric circulation at 500 hPa over Greenland simulated by the CMIP3 and CMIP5 global models, Climate Dynamics, 41, 2061-2080, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1538-2.
  • Bertin, X., E. Prouteau, and C. Letetrel, 2013: A significant increase in wave height in the North Atlantic Ocean over the 20th century. Global and Planetary Change, 106, 77-83, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.03.009.
  • Bett, P. E., Thornton,H.E. and Clark, R.T. 2013: European wind variability over 140 yr. Adv. Sci. Res., 10, 51-58. doi: 10.5194/asr-10-51-2013.
  • Bigg, G. R. and D.J. Wilton, 2014: Iceberg risk in the Titanic year of 1912: was it exceptional?. Weather, 69: 100-104. doi: 10.1002/wea.2238.
  • Bigg, G. R., H.L. Wei, D.J. Wilton, Y. Zhao, S.A. Billings, E. Hanna, and V. Kadirkamanathan, 2014: A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 470, 20130622, doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0662.
  • Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, and M. O. Baringer, Eds., 2011: State of the Climate in 2010. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, S1-S236. doi:10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1.
  • Brönnimann, S., G.P. Compo, R. Spadin, R. Allan, and W. Adam, 2011: Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis. Clim. Past, 7, 265-276, doi:10.5194/cp-7-265-2011.
  • Brönnimann, S., and G.P. Compo, 2011: Ozone highs and associated flow features in the first half of the twentieth century in different data sets.Meteorol. Zeit., 21, 49-59, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2012/0284.
  • Brönnimann, S., T. Griesser, and A. Stickler, 2010: A gridded monthly upper-air data set from 1918 to 1957. Cli. Dyn., 38, 475-493, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0940-x.
  • Brönnimann, S., A.N. Grant, G.P. Compo, T. Ewen, T. Griesser, A. M. Fischer, M. Schraner, and A. Stickler, 2012: A multi-data set comparison of the vertical structure of temperature variability and change over the Arctic during the past 100 years.Cli. Dyn., 39, 1577-1598, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1291-6.
  • Brönnimann, S., O. Martius, H. von Waldow, C. Welker, J. Luterbacher, G.P. Compo, P.D. Sardeshmukh, and T. Usbeck, 2012: Extreme winds at northern mid-latitudes since 1871. Meteorol. Zeit., 21, 13-27, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2012/0337.
  • Brönnimann, S., A. Stickler, T. Griesser, A. M. Fischer, A. Grant, T. Ewen, T. Zhou, M. Schraner, E. Rozanov, and T. Peter, 2009: Variability of large-scale atmospheric circulation indices for the Northern Hemisphere during the past 100 years. Meteorol. Z., 18, 379-396, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0389.
  • Brown, P. J., and A.T. DeGaetano, 2013: Trends in U.S. Surface Humidity, 1930-2010. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 147-163, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-035.
  • Bye, J., K. Fraedrich, E. Kirk, S. Schubert, and X. Zhu, 2011: Random walk lengths of about 30 years in global climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05806, doi:10.1029/2010GL046333.
  • Calafat, F. M., D. P. Chambers, and M. N. Tsimplis, 2012: Mechanisms of decadal sea level variability in the eastern North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09022, doi:10.1029/2012JC008285.
  • Cai, W., T. Cowan, and M. Thatcher, 2012: Rainfall reductions over the Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: the role of subtropical dry zone expansion. Scientific Reports, 2, 702, doi:10.1038/srep00702.
  • Cao, J., J. Hu, and Y. Tao, 2012: An index for the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D18108, doi:10.1029/2012JD017841.
  • Carton, J.A., H.F. Seidel, and B.S. Giese, 2012: Detecting historical ocean climate variability, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C02023, doi:10.1029/2011JC007401.
  • Chakravotry, S., J.S. Chowdary, and C. Gnanaseelan, 2013: Spring asymmetric mode in the tropical Indian Ocean: role of El Nino and IOD, Climate Dynamics, 40, 1467-1481, doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1340-1.
  • Chelliah, M., W. Ebisuzaki, S. Weaver, and A. Kumar, 2011: Evaluating the tropospheric variability in National Centers for Environmental Prediction's climate forecast system reanalysis, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D17107, doi:10.1029/2011JD015707.
  • Chen, H.W., Q. Zhang, H. Kornich, and D. Chen, 2013: A robust mode of climate variability in the Arctic: The Barents Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50551.
  • Chernokulsky, A., and I.I. Mokhov, 2012: Climatology of Total Cloudiness in the Arctic: An Intercomparison of Observations and Reanalyses. Advances in Meteorol., 2012, Article ID 542093, doi:10.1155/2012/542093
  • Chernokulsky, A., I.I. Mokhov, and N. Nikitina, 2013: Winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia related to the Siberian High during 1966-2010. Env. Res. Lett., 8, L045012, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/045012.
  • Chowdary, J. S., S.-P. Xie, H. Tokinaga, Y. M. Okumura, H. Kubota, N. Johnson, and X.-T. Zheng, 2012: Interdecadal Variations in ENSO Teleconnection to the Indo-Western Pacific for 1870-2007*. J. Climate, 25, 1722-1744, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00070.1.
  • Chowdary, J. S., N. John, C. Gnanaseelan, 2014: Interannual variability of surface air-temperature over India: impact of ENSO and Indian Ocean Sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 34: 416-429, doi: 10.1002/joc.3695.
  • Compo, G.P., J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R.J. Allan, X. Yin, B.E. Gleason, R.S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Brönnimann, M. Brunet, R.I. Crouthamel, A.N. Grant, P.Y. Groisman, P.D. Jones, M. Kruk, A.C. Kruger, G.J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H.Y. Mok, Ř. Nordli, T.F. Ross, R.M. Trigo, X.L. Wang, S.D. Woodruff, and S.J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1-28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.
  • Compo, G.P., P.D. Sardeshmukh, J.S. Whitaker, P.D. Jones, P. Brohan, and C. McColl, 2013: Independent confirmation of global land warming with the use of station temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 12, 3170-3174, doi:10.1002/grl.50425. Auxiliary Material. Open Access.
  • Cook, B.I., R. Seager, and R.L. Miller, 2010: Atmospheric circulation anomalies during two persistent north american droughts: 1932-1939 and 1948-1957. Clim. Dyn., 36, 2339-2355. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0807-1.
  • Cook, B.I., R. Seager, and R.L. Miller, 2011: On the causes and dynamics of the early twentieth century North American pluvial. J. Climate, 24, 5043-5060, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4201.1.
  • Cornes, R. C., 2014: Historic storms of the northeast Atlantic since circa 1700: a brief review of recent research. Weather,, 69: 121-125. doi:10.1002/wea.2289.
  • Cropper, T. E., and E. Hanna, 2013: An analysis of the climate of Macaronesia, 1865-2012. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 604-622, doi: 10.1002/joc.3710.
  • Dangendorf, S., S. Muller-Navarra, J. Jensen, F. Schenk, T. Wahl, and R. Weisse, 2014: North Sea storminess from a novel storm surge record since AD 1843. J. Climate, 27, 3582-3595, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00427.1.
  • Dangendorf, S., C. Mudersbach, T. Wahl, and J. Jensen, 2013: Characteristics of intra-,inter-annual and decadal sea-level and the role of meteorological forcing. Ocean Dynamics, 63, 209-224, doi:10.1007/s10236-013-0598-0.
  • Davy, R. and I. Esau, 2014: Surface air temperature variability in global climate models. Atmosph. Sci. Lett., 15, 13-20, doi: 10.1002/asl2.456.
  • Dawson, A., T. N. Palmer, and S. Corti, 2012: Simulating regime structures in weather and climate prediction models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21805, doi:10.1029/2012GL053284.
  • de Bruin, H. and H. Van den Dool, 2010: De storm van 1894: Een ramp voor Scheveningen, en een test case voor moderne meteorologen.Zenit, August, 316-320.
  • Diamond, H. J., A. M. Lorrey, and J.A. Renwick, 2013: A Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Climatology and Linkages to the El Nińo-Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 26, 3-25. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00077.1.
  • Diaz, H. F., T. W. Giambelluca, 2012: Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns associated with high and low rainfall regimes in the Hawaiian Islands region on multiple time scales, Global and Planetary Change, 98-99, 97-108, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.08.011.
  • Diaz, H. F., T.W. Swetname, 2013: The Wildfires of 1910: Climatology of an Extreme Early Twentieth-Century Event and Comparison with More Recent Extremes, Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 94, 1361-1370. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00150.1.
  • DiNapoli, S. M. and V. Misra, 2012: Reconstructing the 20th century high-resolution climate of the southeastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D19113, doi:10.1029/2012JD018303.
  • Dole, R., M. Hoerling, J. Perlwitz, J. Eischeid, P. Pegion, T. Zhang, X.-W. Quan, T. Xu, and D. Murray, 2011: Was there a basis for anticipating the 2010 Russian heat wave? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06702, doi:10.1029/2010GL046582.
  • Donat, M. G., D. Renggli,S. Wild, L. V. Alexander, G. C. Leckebusch, and U. Ulbrich, 2011: Reanalysis suggests long-term upward trends in European storminess since 1871. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14703, doi:10.1029/2011GL047995.
  • Driscoll, S., A. Bozzo, L. J. Gray, A. Robock, and G. Stenchikov, 2012: Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D17105, doi:10.1029/2012JD017607.
  • Du, Y., W. Cai, and Y. Wu, 2013: A New Type of the Indian Ocean Dipole since the Mid-1970s. J. Climate, 26, 959-972, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00047.1.
  • Dunstone, N.J., D.M. Smith, B.B.B. Booth, L. Hermanson, and R. Eade, 2013: Anthropogenic aerosol forcing of Atlantic tropical storms. Nature Geoscience, 6, 534-539, doi:10.1038/ngeo1854.
  • El Fadli, K.I., R.S Cerveny, C.C. Burt, P. Eden, D. Parker, M. Brunet, T.C. Peterson, G. Mordacchini, V. Pelino, P. Bessemoulin, J.L. Stella, F. Driouech, M.M. Abdel wahab, and M.B. Pace, 2012: World Meteorological Organization assessment of the purported world record 58C temperature extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922). Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 94 199-204, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1.
  • Elsner, J.B., R.E. Hodges, and T.H. Jagger, 2012: Spatial grids for hurricance climate research. Cli. Dyn., 39, 21-36, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1066-5.
  • Emanuel, K., 2010: Tropical Cyclone Activity Downscaled from NOAA-CIRES Reanalysis, 1908-1958. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 2, Art. #1, 12 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.1.
  • England, M.H., S. McGregor, P. Spence, G.A. Meehl, A. Timmerman, W. Cai, A. S. Gupta, M.J. McPhaden, A. Purich, A. Santoso, 2014: Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change, in press, doi:10.1038/nclimate2106.
  • Fairchild, I. J. and A. Baker, 2012: References, in Speleothem Science: From Process to Past Environments, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi:10.1002/9781444361094.refs.
  • Fasullo, J., 2012: A mechanism for land-ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate. Cli. Dyn., 39, 1137-1147, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1270-3.
  • Feng, M., C. Böning, A. Biastoch, E. Behrens, E. Weller, and Y. Masumoto, 2011: The reversal of the multi-decadal trends of the equatorial Pacific easterly winds, and the Indonesian Throughflow and Leeuwin Current transports, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11604, doi:10.1029/2011GL047291.
  • Feng, S., and Q. Fu, 2013:Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10081-10094, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10081-2013.
  • Ferguson, C. R., E. F. Wood, and R. K. Vinukollu, 2012: A Global Intercomparison of Modeled and Observed Land-Atmosphere Coupling. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 749-784, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-0119.1.
  • Ferguson, C. R. and G. Villarini, 2012: Detecting inhomogeneities in the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over the central United States, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05123 doi:10.1029/2011JD016988.
  • Ferguson, C. R. and G. Villarini, 2013: An evaluation of the statistical homogeneity of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis, Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1996-1.
  • Fyfe, J. C., N. P. Gillett, and G. J. Marshall, 2012: Human influence on extratropical Southern Hemisphere summer precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L23711, doi:10.1029/2012GL054199.
  • Galbraith, P.S., P. Larouche, J. Chasse, and B. Petrie, 2012: Sea-surface temperature in relation to air temperature in the Gulf of St. Lawrence: Interdecadal variability and long term trends, Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 77-80, 10-20, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.04.001.
  • García-Reyes, M., W. J. Sydeman, B. A. Black, R. R. Rykaczewski, D. S. Schoeman, S. A. Thompson, and S. J. Bograd (2013), Relative influence of oceanic and terrestrial pressure systems in driving upwelling-favorable winds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5311-5315, doi:10.1002/2013GL057729.
  • Gastineau, G., F.D'Andrea, C. Frankignoul, 2012: Atmospheric response to the North Atlantic Ocean variability on seasonal to decadal time scales, Cli. Dyn., 40, 2311-2330, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1333-0.
  • Giese, B.S., G.P. Compo, N.C. Slowey, P.D. Sardeshmukh, J.A. Carton, S. Ray, and J.S. Whitaker, 2010:The 1918/1919 El Nińo. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 177-183, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2903.
  • Giese, B.S., and S. Ray, 2011: El Nińo variability in simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) 1871-2008. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans., 116, C02024, doi:10.1029/2010JC006695.
  • Grainger, S., C. S. Frederiksen, and X. Zheng, 2013: Modes of interannual variability of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation in CMIP3 models: assessment and projections, Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1659-7.
  • Grodsky, S.A., J.A. Carton, S. Nigam, and Y. M. Okumura, 2012: Tropical Atlantic Biases in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25, 3684-3701, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00315.1.
  • Grunseich, G., B. Subrahmanyam, V.S.N. Murty, and B.S. Giese, 2011: Sea surface salinity variability during the Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO events in the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11013, doi:10.1029/2011JC007456.
  • Hakkinen, S., P.B. Rhines, and D.L. Worthen, 2011: Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability. Science, 334, 655-569, doi:10.1126/science.1205683.
  • Hanna, E., P. Huybrechts, J. Cappelen, K. Steffen, R.C. Bales, E. Burgess, J. McConnell, J.P. Steffensen, M. Van den Broeke, L. Wake, G. Bigg, M. Griffiths, and D. Savas, 2011: Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance 1870 to 2010 based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and links with global climate forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D24121, doi:10.1029/2011JD016387.
  • Hao, Z., J. Zheng, Q. Ge, W.C. Wang WC, 2011: Historical analogues of the 2008 extreme snow event over Central and Southern China. Clim. Res., 50, 161-170, doi:10.3354/cr01052.
  • Harvey, B. J., L. C. Shaffrey, T. J. Woollings, G. Zappa, and K. I. Hodges. 2012: How large are projected 21st century storm track changes?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18707, doi:10.1029/2012GL052873.
  • Hastenrath, S., and D. Polzin, 2012:Climatic variations in Central America and the Caribbean. Int. J. Climatology, in press, doi:10.1002/joc.3515.
  • He, S., H. Wang, 2013: Oscillating Relationship between the East Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO. J. Climate, 26, 9819-9838, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00174.1.
  • Hoerling, M., J. Eischeid, J. Perlwitz, X. Quan, T. Zhang, and P. Pegion, 2012: On the Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought. J. Climate, 25, 2146-2161. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00296.1.
  • Hoy, A., M. Sepp, J. Matschullat, 2012: Atmospheric circulation variability in Europe and northern Asia (1901 to 2010), Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 113, 105-126, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0770-3.
  • Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, R. Rimbu, S. Chelcea, and M. Dima, 2012: Interannual to decadal summer drought variability over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface temperature . Cli. Dyn., 38, 363-377, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1028-y.
  • Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, N. Rimbu, and S. Chelcea, 2012: Interannual Variability of Rhine River Streamflow and its Relationship with Large-Scale Anomaly Patterns in Spring and Autumn. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 172-188, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-063.1.
  • Ionita, M., G. Lohmann, N. Rimbu, and P. Scholz, 2012: Dominant modes of Diurnal Temperature Range variability over Europe and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature anomaly patterns. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D15111, doi:10.1029/2011JD016669.
  • Izumo, T., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, J.-J. Luo, T. Yamagata, and G. Madec, 2013: Influence of Indian Ocean Dipole and Pacific recharge on following year's El Nińo: interdecadal robustness. Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1628-1.
  • Jones, P. D., Harpham, C. and Briffa, K. R. (2012), Lamb weather types derived from reanalysis products. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 1129-1139, doi:10.1002/joc.3498.
  • Kent, E. C., Fangohr, S. and Berry, D. I., 2012: A comparative assessment of monthly mean wind speed products over the global ocean. Int. J. Climatol., in press, doi:10.1002/joc.3606.
  • Kent, E. C., Berry, D. I., Prytherch, J. and Roberts, J. B., 2013: A comparison of global marine surface-specific humidity datasets from in situ observations and atmospheric reanalysis. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 355-376, doi: 10.1002/joc.3691.
  • Kent, E. C., N. A. Rayner, D. I. Berry, M. Saunby, B. I. Moat, J. J. Kennedy, and D. E. Parker, 2013: Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: The HadNMAT2 data set. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 1281-1298, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50152.
  • Kirchner-Bossi, N., L. Prieto, R. Garcia-Herrera, L. Carro-Calvo, and S. Salcedo-Sanz, 2013: Multi-decadal variability in a centennial reconstruction of daily wind. Applied Energy, 105, 30-46, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.072.
  • Klingaman, N. P., Woolnough, S. J. and Syktus, J., 2012: On the drivers of inter-annual and decadal rainfall variability in Queensland, Australia. Int. J. Climatol, 33, 2413-2430, doi:10.1002/joc.3593.
  • Klotzbach, P. J., 2011: A simplified Atlantic basin seasonal hurricane prediction scheme from 1 August, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16710, doi:10.1029/2011GL048603.
  • Krueger, O., F. Schenk, F. Feser, and R. Weisse, 2012: Inconsistencies between long-term trends in storminess derived from the 20CR reanalysis and observations. J. Climate, 26, 868-874, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00309.1.
  • Kunkel, K. E., D. R. Easterling, D. A. R. Kristovich, B. Gleason, L. Stoecker, and R. Smith, 2012: Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States. J. Hydrometeor, 13, 1131-1141. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-0108.1.
  • Lavers, D. A., R. P. Allan, E. F. Wood, G. Villarini, D. J. Brayshaw and A. J. Wade, 2011: Winter floods in Britain are connected to atmospheric rivers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23803, doi:10.1029/2011GL049783.
  • Lavers, D. A., G. Villarini, R. P. Allan, E. F. Wood, and A. J. Wade, 2012: The detection of atmospheric rivers in atmospheric reanalyses and their links to British winter floods and the large-scale climatic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20106, doi:10.1029/2012JD018027.
  • Lee, D., and M. Biasutti, 2014: Climatology and variability of precipitation in the 20th century reanalysis. J. Climate, in press, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00630.1.
  • Lee, M.-Y., and H.-H. Hsu, 2013: Identification of the Eurasian-North Pacific Multidecadal Oscillation and Its Relationship to the AMO. J. Climate, 26, 8139-8153, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00041.1.
  • Lee, S.-K., W. Park, E. van Sebille, M. O. Baringer, C. Wang, D. B. Enfield, S. Yeager, and B. P. Kirtman, 2011: What Caused the Significant Increase in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content Since the mid-20th Century? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17607, doi:10.1029/2011GL048856.
  • Lehner, F., C.C. Raible, D. Hofer, and T.F. Stocker, 2011: The freshwater balance of polar regions in transient simulations from 1500 to 2100 AD using a comprehensive coupled climate model. Cli. Dyn., in press.
  • L'Heureux, M.L., S. Lee, and B. Lyon, 2013: Recent multidecadal strengthening of the Walker circulation across the tropical Pacific. Nature Clim. Change, in press, doi:10.1038/nclimate1840.
  • Li, Y., and N.-C. Lau, 2012: Impact of ENSO on the Atmospheric Variability over the North Atlantic in Late Winter-Role of Transient Eddies. J. Climate,, 25, 320-342, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00037.1.
  • Li, Y., L. R. Leung, 2013: Potential Impacts of the Arctic on Interannual and Interdecadal Summer Precipitation over China. J. Climate, 26, 899-917, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00075.1.
  • Liu, C., and L. Wu, 2012: An intensification trend of South Pacific Mode Water subduction rates over the 20th century. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C07009, doi:10.1029/2011JC007755.
  • Liu, H., C. Wang, S.-K. Lee, and D. Enfield, 2012: Atlantic Warm-Pool Variability in the IPCC AR4 CGCM Simulations. J. Climate, 25, 5612-5628. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00376.1.
  • Liu, J., M. Song, Y. Hu, and X. Ren, 2012: Changes in the strength of the Hadley Circulation since 1871. Climate of the Past, 8, 1169-1175, doi:10.5194/cp-8-1169-2012.
  • Lohmann, G., K.H. Wiltshire, 2012: Winter atmospheric circulation signature for the timing of the spring bloom of diatoms in the North Sea. Mar. Biol., 159, 2573-2581. doi:10.1007/s00227-012-1993-7.
  • Lorrey, A., G. Dalu, J. Renwick, H. Diamond, and Marco Gaetani, 2012: Reconstructing the South Pacific Convergence Zone Position during the Presatellite Era: A La Nińa Case Study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 3653-3668. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00228.1.
  • Lovejoy, S., and D. Schertzer, 2010: Towards a new synthesis for atmospheric dynamics: Space-time cascades, Atmos. Res., 96, 1-52, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.01.004.
  • Lovejoy, S., J. Pinel, D. Schertzer, 2012: The Global space-time Cascade structure of precipitation: satellites, gridded gauges and reanalyses, Advances in Water Resources, 45, 37-50, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.03.024.
  • Lovejoy, S. and D. Schertzer, 2012: Stochastic and scaling climate sensitivities: Solar, volcanic and orbital forcings, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L11702, doi:10.1029/2012GL051871.
  • Luo, F., S. Li, and T. Furevik, 2011: The connection between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Indian Summer Monsoon in Bergen Climate Model Version 2.0, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D19117, doi:10.1029/2011JD015848.
  • Ma, Y., and R. T. Pinker, 2012: Modeling shortwave radiative fluxes from satellites, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23202, doi:10.1029/2012JD018332.
  • Maddox, R.A., M.S. Gilmore, C.A. Doswell III, R.H. Johns, C.A. Crisp, D.W. Burgess, J.A. Hart, and S.F. Piltz, 2013: Meteorological analyses of the Tri-State Tornado Event of March 1925, E-Journal of Severe Storms Meteor., 8, 1, www.ejssm.org/ojs/index.php/ejssm/article/view/114.
  • Neff, W., G. Compo, F. Martin Ralph, and M.D. Shupe, 2014: Continental heat anomalies and the extreme melting of the Greenland ice surface in 2012 and 1889. J. Geophys. Res., in press, doi:10.1002/2014JD021470. Supplemental Material.
  • Monier, E., A. Sokolov, A. Schlosser, J. Scott, and X. Gao, 2013:Probabilistic projections of 21st century climate change over Northern Eurasia, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 045008, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/045008.
  • Moore, G.W.K., J.L. Semple and G. Hoyland, 2011: Global Warming, El Nińo, and High-Impact Storms at Extreme Altitude: Historical Trends and Consequences for Mountaineers, J. Appli. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 2197-2208, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-023.1.
  • Moore, G.W.K.,2012:Surface pressure record of Tibetan Plateau warming since the 1870s, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 138, doi:10.1002/qj.1948.
  • Moore, G.W.K., I.A. Renfrew and R.S. Pickart, 2013:Mobility of the North Atlantic Oscillation since 1825, J. Climate, 26, 2453-2466, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00023.1.
  • Nakamura, J., U. Lall, K. Yochanan, A.W. Robertson, and R. Seager, 2013: Dynamical structure of extreme floods in the US Midwest and the United Kingdom, J. Hydrometeorology, 14, 485-504, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-059.1.
  • Neff, W., G. Compo, F. Martin Ralph, and M.D. Shupe, 2014: Continental heat anomalies and the extreme melting of the Greenland ice surface in 2012 and 1889. J. Geophys. Res., in press, doi:10.1002/2014JD021470. Supplemental Material.

  • Nidheesh, A.G., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, A.S. Unnikrishnan, and H. Dayan, 2012: Decadal and long-term sea level variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean, Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1463-4.
  • Nigam, S., B. Guan, and A.Ruiz-Barradas, 2011: Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16713, doi:10.1029/2011GL048650.
  • Oliver, E., and K. Thompson, 2012: A reconstruction of Madden-Julian Oscillation variability from 1905 to 2008,J. Climate, 25, 1996-2019, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00154.1.
  • Ouzeau, G., J. Cattiaux, H. Douville, A. Ribes, and D. Saint-Martin, 2011: European cold winter 2009-2010: How unusual in the instrumental record and how reproducible in the ARPEGE-Climat model? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11706, doi:10.1029/2011GL047667.
  • Paek H., H.-P. Huang, 2012: A Comparison of Decadal-to-Interdecadal Variability and Trend in Reanalysis Datasets Using Atmospheric Angular Momentum, J. Climate, 25, 4750-4758, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00358.1.
  • Paek, H. and H.-P. Huang, 2012: A comparison of the interannual variability in atmospheric angular momentum and length-of-day using multiple reanalysis data sets, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20102, doi:10.1029/2012JD018105.
  • Parker, D. E., 2011: Recent land surface air temperature trends assessed using the 20th Century Reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D20125, doi:10.1029/2011JD016438.
  • Pegion, K., and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2011: Prospects for improving subseasonal predictions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 3648-3666, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00004.1.
  • Pena-Ortiz, C., D. Gallego, P. Ribera, P. Ordonez, and M. D. C. Alvarez-Castro, 2013:Observed trends in the global jet stream characteristics during the second half of the 20th century, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50305.
  • Pfeiffer, M. and Kaplan, J. O., 2012: SPITFIRE-2: an improved fire module for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 5, 2347-2443, doi:10.5194/gmdd-5-2347-2012.
  • Pohl, B., and N. Fauchereau, 2012: The Southern Annular Mode seen through weather regimes. J. Climate, 25, 3336-3354, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00160.1.
  • Porter, T.J., M.F.J. Pisaric, R.D. Field, S.V. Kokelij, T.W.D. Edwards, P. deMontigny, R. Healy, A.N. LeGrande, 2014: Spring-summer temperatures since AD 1780 reconstructed from stable oxygen isotope ratios in white spruce tree-rings from the Mackenzie Delta, northwestern Canada. Climate Dynamics, 42, 771-785, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1674-3.
  • Przybylak, R., P. Wyszyski, Z. Vízi, J. and Jankowska, 2012: Atmospheric pressure changes in the Arctic from 1801 to 1920. Int. J. Climatol., in press, doi:10.1002/joc.3546.
  • Rasmussen, Kristen L., Robert A. Houze, 2011: Orogenic Convection in Subtropical South America as Seen by the TRMM Satellite. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 2399-2420, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-10-05006.1.
  • Ray, S., B.S. Giese, 2012: Historical changes in El Nino and La Nina characteristics in an ocean reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 117, C11007. doi:10.1029/2012JC008031.
  • Richard, Y. M. Rouault, B. Pohl, J. Cretat, I. Duclot, S. Taboulot, C. J. C. Reason,C. Macrona and D. Buirona, 2012. Temperature changes in the mid- and high-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 1948-1963, doi:10.1002/joc.3563.
  • Rimbu, N. and G. Lohmann, 2011: Winter and summer blocking variability in the North Atlantic region - evidence from long-term observational and proxy data from southwestern Greenland. Clim. Past, 7, 543-555, doi:10.5194/cp-7-543-2011.
  • Sandeep, S., F. Stordal, P.D. Sardeshmukh, and G.P. Compo, 2014: Pacific Walker Circulation variability in coupled and uncoupled climate models. Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2135-3.
  • Santos, J.A., T. Woollings, and J.G. Pinto, 2013:Are the Winters 2010 and 2012 Archetypes Exhibiting Extreme Opposite Behavior of the North Atlantic Jet Stream?, Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 3626-3640, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00024.1.
  • Seager, R. and N. Naik, 2012: A mechanisms-based approach to detecting recent anthropogenic hydroclimate change. J. Climate, 25, 236-261, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00056.
  • Seager, R., N. Pederson, Y. Kushnir, J. Nakamura, S. Jurburg, 2012: The 1960s Drought and the Subsequent Shift to a Wetter Climate in the Catskill Mountains Region of the New York City Watershed. J. Climate, 25, 6721-6742. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00518.1.
  • Sirocko, F., H. Brunck, and S. Pfahl, 2012: Solar influence on winter severity in central Europe. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L16704, doi:10.1029/2012GL052412.
  • Smedsrud, L. H., et al., 2013: The role of the Barents Sea in the Arctic climate system, Rev. Geophys., 51, 415-449, doi:10.1002/rog.20017.
  • Smith, J. A., M. L. Baeck, A. A. Ntelekos, G. Villarini, and M. Steiner, 2011: Extreme rainfall and flooding from orographic thunderstorms in the central Appalachians. Water Resour. Res., 47, W04514, doi:10.1029/2010WR010190.
  • Soon, W., K. Dutta, D. R. Legates, V. Velasco, W. Zhang, 2011: Variation in surface air temperature of China during the 20th century, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Physics, 87, 2331-2344, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.07.007.
  • Soon, W., ad D. R. Legates, 2013: Solar irradiance modulation of Equator to Pole (Arctic) temperature gradients: Empirical evidence for climate variation on multi-decadal timescales, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Physics, 93, 45-56, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2012.11.015.
  • Schwalm, C. R., C. A. Williams, and K. Schaefer, 2011: Carbon consequences of global hydrologic change, 1948-2009, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G03042, doi:10.1029/2011JG001674.
  • Stachnik, J. P., and C. Schumacher, 2011: A comparison of the Hadley circulation in modern reanalyses, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D22102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016677.
  • Stickler, A. and S. Brönnimann, 2011: Significant bias of the NCEP/NCAR and twentieth-century reanalyses relative to pilot balloon observations over the West African Monsoon region (1940-1957). Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1400-1416, doi:10.1002/qj.854.
  • Stucki, P., R. Rickli, S. Bronnimann, O. Martius, H. Wanner, G. Dietmar, and J. Luterbacher, 2013: Weather patterns and hydro-climatic precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868. Met. Zeit., 21, 531-550, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2012/368.
  • Swart, N.C., and J.C. Fyfe, 2011: Ocean carbon uptake and storage influenced by wind biases in global climate models. Nature Climate Change,2, 47-52, doi:10.1038/nclimate1288.
  • Swart, N. C. and J. C. Fyfe, 2012: Observed and simulated changes in the Southern Hemisphere surface westerly wind-stress, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L16711, doi:10.1029/2012GL052810.
  • Tardif, J.C., M.P. Girardin, and F. Conciatori, 2011: Light rings as bioindicators of climate change in Interior North America, Global and Planetary Change, 79, 134-144, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.09.001.
  • Tokinaga, H., S.-P. Xie, C. Deser, Y. Kosaka, and Y.M. Okumura, 2012: Slowdown of the Walker circulation driven by tropical Indo-Pacific warming. Nature, 491, 439-443, doi:10.1038/nature11576.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Mackaro, 2011: Atmospheric moisture transports from ocean to land and global energy flows in reanalyses. J. Climate, 24, 4907-4924. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4171.1.
  • Trigo, R.M., F. Varino F, A.M. Ramos, M.A. Valente, J.L. Zęzere, J.M. Vaquero, C.M. Gouveia, and A. Russo, 2014: The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis. Front. Earth Sci., 2:3. doi:10.3389/feart.2014.00003.
  • Trouet, V, MP Panayotov, A Ivanova and D Frank, 2012:A pan-European summer teleconnection mode recorded by a new temperature reconstruction from the northeastern Mediterranean (ad 1768 -2008). The Holocene, 22, 887, doi:10.1177/0959683611434225.
  • Truchelut, R. E., and R. E. Hart, 2011: Quantifying the possible existence of undocumented Atlantic warm-core cyclones in NOAA/CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis Data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L08811, doi:10.1029/2011GL046756.
  • Truchelut, R. E., R. E. Hart, and B. Luthman, 2013: Global identification of previously undetected pre-satellite era tropical cyclone candidates in NOAA/CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis data, in press, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0276.1.
  • Turco, M., R. Marcos, P. Quintan-Segueí, and M.C. Llasat, 2012: Testing instrumental and downscaled reanalysis time series for temperature trends in NE of Spain in the last century. Reg. Env. Change, in press, doi:10.1007/s10113-012-0363-9.
  • van den Besselaar, E. J. M., M. R. Haylock, G. van der Schrier, and A. M. G. Klein Tank, 2011: A European daily high-resolution observational gridded data set of sea level pressure, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D11110, doi:10.1029/2010JD015468.
  • van Oldenborgh, G.J., de Laat, A.T.J., Luterbacher, J., Ingram, W.J., and Osborn, T.J., 2013: Claim of solar influence is on thin ice: are 11-year cycle solar minima associated with severe winters in Europe? Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 024014, 7pp, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024014.
  • Vanícek, K., Metelka, L., Skrivánková, P., and Stanek, M., 2012: Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets - evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961-2010, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 91-100, doi:10.5194/essd-4-91-2012.
  • Varikoden, H. and Preethi, B., 2012: Wet and dry years of Indian summer monsoon and its relation with Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures. Int. J. Climatol., in press, doi:10.1002/joc.3547.
  • Vicente-Serrano, S. M., J. I. López-Moreno, L. Gimeno, R. Nieto, E. Morán-Tejeda, J. Lorenzo-Lacruz, S. Beguería, and C. Azorin-Molina, 2011: A multiscalar global evaluation of the impact of ENSO on droughts, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D20109, doi:10.1029/2011JD016039.
  • Vose, R. S., S. Applequist, M. J. Menne, C. N. Williams Jr., and P. Thorne. 2012: An intercomparison of temperature trends in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network and recent atmospheric reanalyses. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10703, doi:10.1029/2012GL051387.
  • Wang, C., S. Dong, A. T. Evan, G. R. Foltz, and S.-K. Lee, 2012: Multidecadal Covariability of North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, African Dust, Sahel Rainfall, and Atlantic Hurricanes. J. Climate, 25, 5404-5415. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00413.1.
  • Wang, G., and W. Cai, 2013: Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature. Scientific Reports, 3, 2039, doi:10.1038/srep02039.
  • Wang, J.-S., and L. Zhao, 2012: Statistical tests for a correlation between decadal variation in June precipitation in China and sunspot number, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23117, doi:10.1029/2012JD018074.
  • Wang, R., and L. Wu, 2013: Climate Changes of Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Formation Derived from Twentieth-Century Reanalysis. J. Climate, 26, 8995-9005. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00056.1.
  • Wang, S.-Y., and R.R. Gillies, 2013: Influence of the Pacific quasi-decadal oscillation on the monsoon precipitation in Nepal. Cli. Dyn., 40, 95-107, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1376-2.
  • Wang, S.-Y., R.R. Gillies, and T. Reichler, 2011: Multi-decadal drought cycles in the Great Basin recorded by the Great Salt Lake: Modulation from a transition-phase teleconnection. J. Climate,in press, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4225.1.
  • Wang, X., and C. Wang, 2014:Different impacts of various El Nino events on the Indian Ocean Dipole. Climate Dynamics, 42, 991-1005, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1711-2.
  • Wang, X.L., Y. Feng, G.P. Compo, V.R. Swail, F.W. Zwiers, R.J. Allan, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2012: Trends and low frequency variability of extra-tropical cyclone activity in the ensemble of Twentieth Century Reanalysis. Cli. Dyn., in press, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1450-9.
  • Wang, X. L., Y. Feng, and V. R. Swail, 2012: North Atlantic wave height trends as reconstructed from the twentieth century reanalysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18705, doi:10.1029/2012GL053381.
  • Wang, X. L., Y. Feng, G.P. Compo, F.W. Zwiers, R.J. Allan, V.R. Swail,and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2014: Is the storminess in the Twentieth Century Reanalysis really inconsistent with observations? A reply to the comment by Krueger et al. (2013b). Climate Dynamics, 42, 1113-1125, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1828-3.
  • Wang, Y.-H., G. Magnusdottir, H. Stern, X. Tian, and Y. Yu, 2012: Decadal variability of the NAO: Introducing an augmented NAO index, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21702, doi:10.1029/2012GL053413.
  • Wang, Y.-H., G. Magnusdottir, H. Stern, X. Tian, and Y. Yu, 2014:Uncertainty Estimates of the EOF-Derived North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 27, 1290-1301.doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00230.1.
  • Webb, J. D. C., 2011: Violent thunderstorms in the Thames Valley and south Midlands in early June 1910. Weather, 66, 153-155. doi:10.1002/wea.799.
  • Whitaker, J.S., G.P. Compo, and J.-N. Thepaut, 2009: A comparison of variational and ensemble-based data assimilation systems for reanalysis of sparse observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1991-1999, doi:10.1175/2008MWR2781.1.
  • Wöhrnschimmel, H. P. Tay, H. von Waldow, H. Hung, Y.-F. Li, M. MacLeod, and K. Hungerbuhler, 2012: Comparative assessment of the global fate of alpha and beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane before and after Phase-Out. Environ. Sci. Technolo., 46, 2047-2054, doi:10.1021/es203109q.
  • Wood, K. R., and J.E. Overland, 2010: Early 20th century Arctic warming in retrospect, Int. J. of Climatol., 30, 1269-1279, doi:10.1002/joc.1973.
  • Wu, L., W. Cai, L. Zhang, H. Nakamura, A. Timmerman, T. Joyce, M.J. McPhaden, M. Alexander, B. Qiu, M. Visbeck, P. Chang, and B. Giese, 2012: Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Climate Change, 2, 161-166, doi:10.1038/nclimate1353.
  • Xu, J., and A.M. Powell, 2012: Uncertainty estimation of the global temperature trends for multiple radiosondes, reanalyses, and CMIP3/IPCC climate model simulations. Theor. and Applied Climatol., 108, 505-518, doi:10.1007/s00704-011-0548-z.
  • Xu, J., and A.M. Powell, 2013: What happened to surface temperature with sunspot activity in the past 130 years? Theor. and Applied Climatol., 111, 609-622, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0694-y.
  • Yang, X., and Coauthors, 2013: A Predictable AMO-Like Pattern in the GFDL Fully Coupled Ensemble Initialization and Decadal Forecasting System. J. Climate, 26, 650-661. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00231.1.
  • Yu, B., X. L. Wang, X. B. Zhang, J. Cole, Y. Feng, 2014: Decadal Covariability of the Northern Wintertime Land Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation. J. Climate, 27, 633-651, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00266.1.
  • Zhang, L., and C. Wang, 2012: Remote influences on freshwater flux variability in the Atlantic warm pool region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19714, doi:10.1029/2012GL053530.
  • Zhang, L., C. Wang, and L. Wu, 2012: Low-frequency modulation of the Atlantic warm pool by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Cli. Dyn., 39, 1661-1671, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1257-0.
  • Zhang, L., and T. Zhou, 2013: A comparison of tropospheric temperature changes over China revealed by multiple data sets. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50370.
  • Zhang, L., A. Kumar, and W. Wang, 2012: Influence of changes in observations on precipitation: A case study for the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), J. Geophys. Res., 117, D08105, doi:10.1029/2011JD017347.
  • Zhang, X.J., L.Y. Jin, C.Z. Chen, D.S. Guan, and M.Z. Li, 2011: Internannual and interdecadal variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation spatial shift.Chinese Sci. Bull., 56, 2621-2627. doi:10.1007/s11434-011-4607-8.
  • Zhang, Q., H. Körnich, and K. Holmgren, 2012: How well do reanalyses represent the southern African precipitation? Cli. Dyn., 40, 951-962, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1423-z.
  • Zhao, P., S. Yang, H. Wang, and Q. Zhang, 2011: Interdecadal relationships between the Asian-Pacific Oscillation and summer climate anomalies over Asian, North Pacific and North America during recent 100 years. J. Climate, in press. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00054.
  • Zheng, F., J. Li, R.T. Clark, and H.C. Nnamchi, 2013: Simulation and Projection of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode in CMIP5 Models. J. Climate, 26, 9860-9879, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00204.1.
  • Zhou, X.J., P. Zhao, G. Liu, T.J. Zhou, 2011: Characteristics of decadal-centennial-scale changes in East Asian summer monsoon circulation and precipitation during the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age and in the present day. Chinese. Sci. Bull., 56, 3003-3011. doi:10.1007/s11434-011-4651-4.
  • Zib, B.J., X. Dong, B. Xi, A. Kennedy, 2012: Evaluation and Intercomparison of Cloud Fraction and Radiative Fluxes in Recent Reanalyses over the Arctic Using BSRN Surface Observations. J. Climate, 25, 2291-2305. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00147.1.