Polar Observations and Processes

NSA References

Cloud Radar References

Clothiaux, E.E., K.P. Moran, B.E. Martner, T.P. Ackerman, G.G. Mace, T. Uttal, J.H. Mather, K.B. Widener, M.A. Miller and D.J. Rodriguez, 1999:  The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program cloud radars: Operational modes.  J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,  16, 819-827.
Clothiaux, E.E., T.P. Ackerman, G.G. Mace, K.P. Moran, R.T. Marchand, M.A. Miller, and B.E. Martner, 2000:  Objective determination of cloud heights and radar reflectivities using a combination of active remote sensors at the ARM CART sites.  J. Appl. Meteor.,  39, 645-665.
Moran, K.P., B.E. Martner, M.J. Post, R.A. Kropfli, D.C. Welsh, and K.B. Widener, 1998: An unattended cloud profiling radar for use in climate research.  Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 443-455.

Radiometer References

Hogg, D. C., F. O. Guiraud, J. B. Snider, M. T. Decker and E. R. Westwater, 1983: A steerable dual-channel microwave radiometer for measurement of water vapor and liquid in the troposphere. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22, 789-806.
Liljegren, J.C., E.E. Clothiaux, G.G. Mace, S. Kato and X. Dong, 2001: A new retrieval for cloud liquid water path using a ground-based microwave radiometer and measurements of clou temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14 485-14 500.
Liljegren, J.C. 1994. Two-channel microwave radiometer for observations of total column precipitable water vapor and cloud liquid water, Fifth Symposium on Global Change Studies, pp 262-269. January 23-28, 1994, American Meteorological Society, Nashville, Tennessee.
Revercomb, H.E., H. Buijs, H.B. Howell, D.D. LaPorte, William L. Smith, and L.A. Sromovsky. "Radiometric Calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High- Resolution Interferometer Sounder" Applied Optics, Vol. 27 no.15 pp. 3210 - 3218.
Westwater, E.R., Y.Han, M.D. Shupe, and S.Y. Matrosov, 2001:  Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during SHEBA. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32 019-32 030.

LIquid Cloud Retrieval References

Frisch, A.S., M. Shupe, I. Djalalova, G. Feingold, and M. Poellot, 2002: The retrieval of stratus cloud droplet effective radius with cloud radars. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 19, 835-842.
Frisch, A.S., B.E. Martner, I. Djalalova, and M. Poellot, 2000: Comparison of radar/radiometer retrievals  of stratus cloud liquid-water content profiles with in-situ measurements by aircraft. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(D12), 15 361-15 364.
Frisch, A.S., C.W. Fairall, G. Feingold, T. Uttal, and J.B. Snider, 1998: On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(D18), 23 195-23 197.
Frisch, A.S., C.W. Fairall, and J.B. Snider, 1995: Measurement of stratus cloud and drizzle parameters in ASTEX with a Ka-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52(16), 2788-2799.
Frisch, A.S., 1991: On the measurement of second moments of turbulent wind velocity with a single Doppler  radar over non-homogeneous terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 54, 29-39.

Ice Cloud Retrieval References

Matrosov, S.Y., A.V. Korolev, and A.J. Heymsfield, 2002: Profiling of cloud ice mass and particle characteristic size from Doppler radar measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 19, 1003-1018 .
Matrosov, S.Y., and A.J. Heymsfield, 2000: Use of Doppler radar to assess ice cloud particle fall velocity-size relations for remote sensing and climate studies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(D17), 22 427-22 436 .
Matrosov, S.Y., 1999: Retrieval of vertical profiles of ice cloud microphysics from radar and IR measurements using adjusted regressions between reflectivity and cloud parameters. Journal of  Geophysical Research, 104(D14), 16 741-16 753.
Matrosov, S.Y., 1997: Variability of microphysical parameters in high altitude ice clouds: Results of the remote sensing method. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36(6), 633-648.
Matrosov, S.Y., A.J. Heymsfield, J.M. Intrieri, B.W. Orr, and J.B. Snider, 1995: Ground-based remote sensing cloud particle sizes during the November 26, 1991 FIRE-II cirrus case: Comparisons with in situ data. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52(23), 4128-4142.
Matrosov, S.Y., A.J. Heymsfield, R.A. Kropfli, B.E. Martner, R.F. Reinking, J.B. Snider, P. Piironen, and E.W. Eloranta, 1995: Comparisons of ice cloud parameters obtained by combined remote sensor retrievals and direct methods. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15(1), 184-196.
Matrosov, S.Y., B.W. Orr, R.A. Kropfli, and J.B. Snider, 1994: Retrieval of vertical profiles of cirrus cloud microphysical parameters from Doppler radar and infrared radiometer measurements. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 33(5), 617-626.
Matrosov, S.Y., 1992: Radar reflectivity in snowfall. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 30(3), 454-461.
Matrosov, S.Y., T. Uttal, J.B. Snider, and R.A. Kropfli, 1992: Estimation of ice cloud parameters from ground-based infrared radiometer and radar measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(D11), 11 567-11 574 .

Precipitation Retrievals

Marshall, J.S., and W.M. Palmer, 1948: The distribution of raindrops with size. Journal of Meteorology, 5, 165-166.
Gunn, K. L. S., and J.S. Marshall, 1958: The distribution with size of aggregate snowflakes. J. Meteor., 15, 452-651.

OPTICAL DEPTH REFERENCES

Matrosov, S.Y. and J.B. Snider, 1995: Studies of cloud ice water path and optical thickness during FIRE-II.  SPIE Proceedings vol 2578,133-137.
Slingo, A., 1989: A GCM parameterization for the shorwave radiative properties of water clouds.  J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1419-1427.

Program References

Ackerman, T., and G. Stokes. 2003: "The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program." Physics Today 56: 38-45.
Curry, J.A., and Coauthors, 2000: FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment.  Bull. Amer.  Meteorol. Soc., 81, 5-30.
Stokes, G.M. and S.E. Schwartz, 1994:  The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program:  Programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed.  Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75, 1201-1221.
Uttal, T., J, A. Curry, M.G. McPhee, D. K. Perovich, R. E. Moritz, J.A. Maslanik, P. S. Guest, H. L. Stern, J. A. Moore, R. Turenne, A. Heiberg, M. C. Serreze,  D. P. Wylie., P.O.G. Persson, C. A. Paulson, C. Halle,  J. H. Morison, P. A.Wheeler, A. Makshtas, H. Welch, M. D. Shupe, J. M. Intrieri, K. Stamnes, R. W. Lindsey, R. Pinkel, W. S. Pegau, T. P. Stanton, T. C. Grenfeld, 2002: Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 255-275.
Wielicki, B. A., R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison, 1995: Mission to Planet Earth: Role of Clouds and Radiation in Climate. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 76, 2125-2153.

Papers Utilizing Cloud Microphysics Retrievals

Shupe, M.D., T. Uttal, S.Y. Matrosov, and A.S. Frisch, 2001:  Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 015-15 028.
Hobbs, P.V., A.L. Rangno, M.D. Shupe, and T. Uttal , 2001:  Airborne studies of cloud structures over the Arctic Ocean and comparisons with deductions from ship-based 35-GHz radar measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 029-15 044.
Khvorostyanov, V.I., J.A. Curry, J.O. Pinto, M. Shupe, B.A. Baker, and K. Sassen, 2001: Modeling with explicit spectral water and ice microphysics of a two-layer cloud system of altostratus and cirrus observed during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 099-15 112.
Loehnert, U., G. Feingold, T. Uttal, A.S. Frisch, and M.D. Shupe, 2003: Analysis of two independent methods for retrieving liquid water profiles in spring and summer Arctic boundary clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D7), 4219, doi:10.1029/2002JD002861.
Morrison, H., M.D. Shupe, and J.A. Curry, 2003: Modeling clodus observed at SHEBA using a bulk microphysics parameterization implemented into a single-column model. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D8), 4255, doi:10.1029/2002JD002229.
Zhang, J., and U. Lohmann, 2003: Sensitivity of single column model simulations of Arctic springtime clouds to different cloud cover and mixed phase cloud parameterizations. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D15), 4439, doi:10.1029/2002JD003136.