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GMD Publications for 2014

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Andrews, A. E., J. D. Kofler, M. E. Trudeau, J. C. Williams, D. H. Neff, K. A. Masarie, D. Y. Chao, D. R. Kitzis, P. C. Novelli, C. L. Zhao, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. M. Lang, M. J. Crotwell, M. L. Fischer, M. J. Parker, J. T. Lee, D. D. Baumann, A. R. Desai, C. O. Stanier, S. F. J. De Wekker, D. E. Wolfe, J. W. Munger and P. P. Tans, (2014), CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 2, , 10.5194/amt-7-647-2014
Basu, S., M. Krol, A. Butz, C. Clerbaux, Y. Sawa, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, C. Frankenberg, O. P. Hasekamp and I. Aben, (2014), The seasonal variation of the CO flux over Tropical Asia estimated from GOSAT, CONTRAIL, and IASI , Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 5, , 10.1002/2013GL059105
Berkelhammer, M., D. Asaf, C. Still, S. Montzka, D. Noone, M. Gupta, R. Provencal, H. Chen and D Yakir, (2014), Constraining surface carbon fluxes using measurements of carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide , Global Biogeochemical Cycles, , , 10.1002/2013GB004644
Bowling, D. R., A. P. Ballantyne, J. B. Miller, S. P. Burns, T. J. Conway, O. Menzer, B. B. Stephens and B. H. Vaughn, (2014), Ecological processes dominate the C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest , Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, 4, , 10.1002/2013gb004686
Brandt, A. R., G. A. Heath and E. A. Kort, (2014), Methane Leaks from North American Natural Gas Systems, Science, 343, 6172, , 10.1126/science.1247045
Caulton, D. R., P. B. Shepson, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka and B. R. Miller, (2014), Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 17, , 10.1073/pnas.1316546111
Conley, Stephen A., Ian C. Faloona, Donald H. Lenschow, Anna Karion and Colm Sweeney, (2014), A Low-Cost System for Measuring Horizontal Winds from Single-Engine Aircraft, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 31, 6, , 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00143.1
Cooper, O. R., D. D. Parrish, J. Ziemke, N. V. Balashov, M. Cupeiro, I. E. Galbally, S. Gilge, L. Horowitz, N. R. Jensen, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, S. J. Oltmans, J. Schwab, D. T. Shindell, A. M. Thompson, V. Thouret, Y. Wang and R. M. Zbinden, (2014), Global distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone: An observation-based review, Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 2, , 10.12952/journal.elementa.000029
Cressot, C., F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Crevoisier, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. Fortems-Cheiney, C. Frankenberg, R. Parker, I. Pison, R. A. Scheepmaker, S. A. Montzka, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele and R. L. Langenfelds, (2014), On the consistency between global and regional methane emissions inferred from SCIAMACHY, TANSO-FTS, IASI and surface measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 2, , 10.5194/acp-14-577-2014
Dlugokencky, E.J., Masarie, K.A., Conway, T.J., Novelli, P.C., Lang, P.M., Crotwell, A.M., Crotwell, M., Vaughn, B., White, J.W.C., , (2014), MEASUREMENTS OF GREENHOUSE GASES AND OTHER ATMOSPHERIC TRACERS BY NOAA ESRL FROM DISCRETE AIR SAMPLES COLLECTED AT CAPE GRIM BASELINE AIR POLLUTION STATION, In: Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia 2009‐2010, Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, 50
Fang, S. X., L. X. Zhou, P. P. Tans, P. Ciais, M. Steinbacher, L. Xu and T. Luan, (2014), In situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 5, , 10.5194/acp-14-2541-2014
Fang, Xuekun, Benjamin R. Miller, ShenShen Su, Jing Wu, Jianbo Zhang and Jianxin Hu, (2014), Historical Emissions of HFC-23 (CHF ) in China and Projections upon Policy Options by 2050 , Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 7, , 10.1021/es404995f
Fiebig, M., D. Hirdman, C. R. Lunder, J. A. Ogren, S. Solberg, A. Stohl and R. L. Thompson, (2014), Annual cycle of Antarctic baseline aerosol: controlled by photooxidation-limited aerosol formation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 6, , 10.5194/acp-14-3083-2014
Gao, R. S., K. H. Rosenlof, D. W. Fahey, P. O. Wennberg, E. J. Hintsa and T. F. Hanisco, (2014), OH in the tropical upper troposphere and its relationships to solar radiation and reactive nitrogen, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 71, 1, , 10.1007/s10874-014-9280-2
Gatti, L. V., M. Gloor, J. B. Miller, C. E. Doughty, Y. Malhi, L. G. Domingues, L. S. Basso, A. Martinewski, C. S. C. Correia, V. F. Borges, S. Freitas, R. Braz, L. O. Anderson, H. Rocha, J. Grace, O. L. Phillips and J. Lloyd, (2014), Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements, Nature, 506, 7486, , 10.1038/nature12957
Hall, B. D., A. Engel, J. Mühle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E.-G. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione and S. A. Montzka, (2014), Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE), Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 2, , 10.5194/amt-7-469-2014
Hegglin, M. I., D. A. Plummer, T. G. Shepherd, J. F. Scinocca, J. Anderson, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, D. Hurst, A. Rozanov, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K. A. Walker, H. J. Wang, S. Tegtmeier and K. Weigel, (2014), Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data, Nature Geoscience, 7, 10, , 10.1038/NGEO2236
Helmig, D., V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino and P. Tans, (2014), Reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere 1950–2010 atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 3, , 10.5194/acp-14-1463-2014
Hossaini, Ryan, Chipperfield, Martyn, Montzka, Stephen, Rap, Alex, Dhomse, Sandip, Feng, Wuhu, , (2014), Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from Short-Lived Halogens and Climate Impacts , Geophysical Research Abstracts, 16, ,


Halogens released from very short-lived substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) – not regulated by the Montreal Protocol – also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.

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Houweling, S., M. Krol, P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, E. J. Dlugokencky, I. Morino, J. Notholt, V. Sherlock, D. Wunch, V. Beck, C. Gerbig, H. Chen, E. A. Kort, T. Röckmann and I. Aben, (2014), A multi-year methane inversion using SCIAMACHY, accounting for systematic errors using TCCON measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 8, , 10.5194/acp-14-3991-2014
Hurst, D.F., Davis, S.M., Rosenlof, K.H., , (2014), [Global Climate: Atmospheric Composition] Stratospheric Water Vapor, [in “State of the Climate in 2013”], Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 7, S40-S41,
Hurst, Dale F., Alyn Lambert, William G. Read, Sean M. Davis, Karen H. Rosenlof, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan and Samuel J. Oltmans, (2014), Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119, 1612-1625, 10.1002/2013JD020757
Jiang, ChuanLi, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall and Colm Sweeney, (2014), Drake Passage Oceanic CO : Evaluating CMIP5 Coupled Carbon–Climate Models Using in situ Observations , Journal of Climate, 27, 1, , 10.1175/jcli-d-12-00571.1
Kassianov, Evgueni, James Barnard, Connor Flynn, Laura Riihimaki, Joseph Michalsky and Gary Hodges, (2014), Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval, Atmosphere, 5, 3, , 10.3390/atmos5030597
Koo, Ja-Ho, Yuhang Wang, Tianyu Jiang, Yi Deng, Samuel J. Oltmans and Sverre Solberg, (2014), Influence of climate variability on near-surface ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 7, , 10.1002/2014GL059275
Kramer, L. J., D. Helmig, J. F. Burkhart, A. Stohl, S. Oltmans and R. E. Honrath, (2014), Seasonal variability of atmospheric nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons at the GEOSummit station, Greenland, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 9, , 10.5194/acpd-14-13817-2014
Kuai, L., J. Worden, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Montzka and J. Liu, (2014), Characterization of Aura TES carbonyl sulfide retrievals over ocean, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 1, , 10.5194/amt-7-163-2014
Leedham Elvidge, E. C., D. E. Oram, J. C. Laube, A. K. Baker, S. A. Montzka and S. Humphrey, (2014), Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998–2012, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 14, , 10.5194/acpd-14-20721-2014
Lefohn, Allen S., Christopher Emery, Douglas Shadwick, Heini Wernli, Jeagun Jung and Samuel J. Oltmans, (2014), Estimates of background surface ozone concentrations in the United States based on model-derived source apportionment, Atmospheric Environment, 84, , 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.11.033
Li, R., C. Warneke, M. Graus, R. Field, F. Geiger, P. R. Veres, J. Soltis, S.-M. Li, S. M. Murphy, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, J. M. Roberts and J. de Gouw, (2014), Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 10, , 10.5194/amt-7-3597-2014
Liang, Qing, Paul A. Newman, John S. Daniel, Stefan Reimann, Bradley D. Hall, Geoff Dutton and Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, (2014), Constraining the carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) budget using its global trend and inter-hemispheric gradient , Geophysical Research Letters, , , 10.1002/2014GL060754
Liang, Qing, Paul A. Newman, John S. Daniel, Stefan Reimann, Bradley D. Hall, Geoff Dutton and Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, (2014), Constraining the carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) budget using its global trend and inter-hemispheric gradient , Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 14, , 10.1002/2014GL060754
Lin, Meiyun, Larry W. Horowitz, Samuel J. Oltmans, Arlene M. Fiore and Songmiao Fan, (2014), Tropospheric ozone trends at Mauna Loa Observatory tied to decadal climate variability, Nature Geoscience, , , 10.1038/NGEO2066
Maione, M., F. Graziosi, J. Arduini, F. Furlani, U. Giostra, D. R. Blake, P. Bonasoni, X. Fang and S. A. Montzka, (2014), Estimates of European emissions of methyl chloroform using a Bayesian inversion method, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 6, , 10.5194/acpd-14-8209-2014
Mann, G. W., K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski and S. G. Jennings, (2014), Intercomparison and evaluation of global aerosol microphysical properties among AeroCom models of a range of complexity, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 9, , 10.5194/acp-14-4679-2014
Miller, Scot M., Doug E. J. Worthy, Anna M. Michalak, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric A. Kort, Talya C. Havice, Arlyn E. Andrews, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jed O. Kaplan, Patricia J. Levi, Hanqin Tian and Bowen Zhang, (2014), Observational constraints on the distribution, seasonality, and environmental predictors of North American boreal methane emissions, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, 2, , 10.1002/2013gb004580
Montzka, S.A., Siso, C., Mondeel, D., Miller, B.R., Hall, B.D., Elkins, J.W., Butler, J.H., , (2014), FLASK MEASUREMENTS AT CGBAPS BY THE HATS GROUP OF NOAA/ESRL/GMD, In: Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia 2009‐2010, Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, 51-55
Moore, Fred L., Eric A. Ray, Karen H. Rosenlof, James W. Elkins, Pieter Tans, Anna Karion and Colm Sweeney, (2014), A Cost-Effective Trace Gas Measurement Program for Long-Term Monitoring of the Stratospheric Circulation, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95, 1, , 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00153.1
Neely, R. R., P. Yu, K. H. Rosenlof, O. B. Toon, J. S. Daniel, S. Solomon and H. L. Miller, (2014), The contribution of anthropogenic SO emissions to the Asian tropopause aerosol layer , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119, 3, , 10.1002/2013jd020578
Nisbet, E. G., E. J. Dlugokencky and P. Bousquet, (2014), Methane on the Rise--Again, Science, 343, 6170, , 10.1126/science.1247828
Oltmans, S. J., A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, C. Sweeney, S. Wolter, D. Neff, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, D. Helmig, B. J. Johnson and J. Hueber, (2014), A high ozone episode in winter 2013 in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region characterized by aircraft measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 14, , 10.5194/acpd-14-20117-2014
Oltmans, Samuel, Russell Schnell, Bryan Johnson, Gabrielle Pétron, Thomas Mefford and Ryan Neely, (2014), Anatomy of wintertime ozone associated with oil and natural gas extraction activity in Wyoming and Utah, Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 2, , 10.12952/journal.elementa.000024
Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng, Neng-Huei Lin, Chia-Ching Lin, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Guey-Rong Sheu, Chung-Te Lee, Russell C. Schnell, Patricia M. Lang, Taro Kawasato and Jia-Lin Wang, (2014), Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in East Asia, Atmospheric Environment, 89, , 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.02.060
Parrondo, M. C., M. Gil, M. Yela, B. J. Johnson and H. A. Ochoa, (2014), Antarctic ozone variability inside the polar vortex estimated from balloon measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 1, , 10.5194/acp-14-217-2014
Patra, P. K., M. C. Krol, S. A. Montzka, T. Arnold, E. L. Atlas, B. R. Lintner, B. B. Stephens, B. Xiang, J. W. Elkins, P. J. Fraser, A. Ghosh, E. J. Hintsa, D. F. Hurst, K. Ishijima, P. B. Krummel, B. R. Miller, K. Miyazaki, F. L. Moore, J. Mühle, S. O’Doherty, R. G. Prinn, L. P. Steele, M. Takigawa, H. J. Wang, R. F. Weiss, S. C. Wofsy and D. Young, (2014), Observational evidence for interhemispheric hydroxyl-radical parity, Nature, 513, 7517, , 10.1038/nature13721
Redondas, A., R. Evans, R. Stuebi, U. Köhler and M. Weber, (2014), Evaluation of the use of five laboratory-determined ozone absorption cross sections in Brewer and Dobson retrieval algorithms, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 3, , 10.5194/acp-14-1635-2014
Rhoderick, George C., David L. Duewer, Eric Apel, Annarita Baldan, Bradley Hall, Alice Harling, Detlev Helmig, Gwi Suk Heo, Jacques Hueber, Mi Eon Kim, Yong Doo Kim, Ben Miller, Steve Montzka and Daniel Riemer, (2014), International Comparison of a Hydrocarbon Gas Standard at the Picomol per Mol Level, Analytical Chemistry, 86, 5, , 10.1021/ac403761u
Rieker, G. B., F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington and N. R. Newbury, (2014), Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths, Optica, 1, 5, , 10.1364/OPTICA.1.000290
Rigby, M. and R. G. Prinn, (2014), Recent and future trends in synthetic greenhouse gas radiative forcing, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 7, , 10.1002/2013gl059099
Ripple, William J., Pete Smith, Helmut Haberl, Stephen A. Montzka, Clive McAlpine and Douglas H. Boucher, (2014), Ruminants, climate change and climate policy, Nature Clim. Change, 4, 1, 2-5, 10.1038/nclimate2081
Rollins, A. W., T. D. Thornberry, R. S. Gao, J. B. Smith, D. S. Sayres, M. R. Sargent, C. Schiller, M. Krämer, N. Spelten, D. F. Hurst, A. F. Jordan, E. G. Hall, H. Vömel, G. S. Diskin, J. R. Podolske, L. E. Christensen, K. H. Rosenlof, E. J. Jensen and D. W. Fahey, (2014), Evaluation of UT/LS hygrometer accuracy by intercomparison during the NASA MACPEX mission, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119, 4, , 10.1002/2013JD020817
Saikawa, E., M. Rigby, R. G. Prinn, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, L. J. M. Kuijpers, P. J. B. Fraser, M. K. Vollmer, T. Saito, Y. Yokouchi, C. M. Harth, J. M.ühle, R. F. Weiss, P. K. Salameh, J. Kim, S. Li, S. Park, K.-R. Kim and D. Young, (2014), Corrigendum to "Global and regional emission estimates for HCFC-22", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10033–10050, 2012, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 10, , 10.5194/acp-14-4857-2014
Saikawa, E., R. G. Prinn, E. Dlugokencky, K. Ishijima, G. S. Dutton, B. D. Hall, R. Langenfelds, Y. Tohjima, T. Machida, M. Manizza and M. Rigby, (2014), Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 9, , 10.5194/acp-14-4617-2014
Santoni, G. W., B. C. Daube, E. A. Kort, R. Jiménez, S. Park, J. V. Pittman, E. Gottlieb, B. Xiang, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, A. E. Andrews, C. Sweeney, B. Hall, E. J. Hintsa, F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, D. F. Hurst, B. B. Stephens, J. Bent and S. C. Wofsy, (2014), Evaluation of the airborne quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) measurements of the carbon and greenhouse gas suite – CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO – during the CalNex and HIPPO campaigns, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 6, , 10.5194/amt-7-1509-2014
Seidel, Dian J., Graham Feingold, Andrew R. Jacobson and Norman Loeb, (2014), Detection limits of albedo changes induced by climate engineering, Nature Climate Change, 4, 2, , 10.1038/nclimate2076
Serke, David, Emrys Hall, John Bognar, Allen Jordan, Spencer Abdo, Kirstin Baker, Tom Seitel, Marta Nelson, Randolph Ware, Frank McDonough and Marcia Politovich, (2014), Supercooled liquid water content profiling case studies with a new vibrating wire sonde compared to a ground-based microwave radiometer, Atmospheric Research, 149, , 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.05.026
Shantz, N. C., I. Gultepe, E. Andrews, A. Zelenyuk, M. E. Earle, A. M. Macdonald, P. S. K. Liu and W. R. Leaitch, (2014), Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008, International Journal of Climatology, , , 10.1002/joc.3898
Stone, R. S., S. Sharma, A. Herber, K. Eleftheriadis and D. W. Nelson, (2014), A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements, Elem. Sci. Anth., 2, 1, 000027,



Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC), in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011) and Equivalent BC (EBC) (1989–2011) from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

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Sun, Yulong, Lingen Bian, Jie Tang, Zhiqiu Gao, Changgui Lu and Russell Schnell, (2014), CO2 Monitoring and Background Mole Fraction at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica, Atmosphere, 5, 3, , 10.3390/atmos5030686
Sun, Yulong, Lingen Bian, Jie Tang, Zhiqiu Gao, Changgui Lu and Russell Schnell, (2014), CO2 Monitoring and Background Mole Fraction at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica, Atmosphere, 5, 3, , 10.3390/atmos5030686
Takagi, Hiroshi, Sander Houweling, Robert J. Andres, Dmitry Belikov, Andrey Bril, Hartmut Boesch, Andre Butz, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Shamil Maksyutov, Isamu Morino and Tomohiro Oda, (2014), Influence of differences in current GOSAT retrievals on surface flux estimation , Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 7, , 10.1002/2013gl059174
Takahashi, Taro, S.C. Sutherland, D.W. Chipman, J.G. Goddard, Cheng Ho, Timothy Newberger, Colm Sweeney and D.R. Munro, (2014), Climatological distributions of pH, pCO2, total CO2, alkalinity, and CaCO3 saturation in the global surface ocean, and temporal changes at selected locations, Marine Chemistry, 164, , 10.1016/j.marchem.2014.06.004
Thompson, R. L., F. Chevallier, A. M. Crotwell, G. Dutton, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, T. Nakazawa, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele and P. Fraser, (2014), Nitrous oxide emissions 1999 to 2009 from a global atmospheric inversion, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 4, , 10.5194/acp-14-1801-2014
Thompson, R. L., P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn and R. F. Weiss, (2014), TransCom N2O model inter-comparison – Part 1: Assessing the influence of transport and surface fluxes on tropospheric N2O variability, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 8, , 10.5194/acp-14-4349-2014
Titos, G., A. Jefferson, P. J. Sheridan, E. Andrews, H. Lyamani, L. Alados-Arboledas and J. A. Ogren, (2014), Aerosol light-scattering enhancement due to water uptake during TCAP campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 3, , 10.5194/acpd-14-3361-2014
Umezawa, T., A. K. Baker, D. Oram and C. Sauvage, (2014), Methyl chloride in the upper troposphere observed by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft observatory: Large-scale distributions and Asian summer monsoon outflow, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , , 10.1002/2013JD021396
Wang, Xuhui, Shilong Piao, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Ranga B. Myneni, Peter Cox, Martin Heimann, John Miller, Shushi Peng, Tao Wang, Hui Yang and Anping Chen, (2014), A two-fold increase of carbon cycle sensitivity to tropical temperature variations, Nature, 506, 7487, , 10.1038/nature12915
Yacovitch, Tara I., Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Cody Floerchinger, Ryan M. McGovern, Michael Agnese, Gabrielle Pétron, Jonathan Kofler, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, Stephen A. Conley, Eric A. Kort, Lars Nähle, Marc Fischer, Lars Hildebrandt, Johannes Koeth, J. Barry McManus, David D. Nelson, Mark S. Zahniser and Charles E. Kolb, (2014), Demonstration of an Ethane Spectrometer for Methane Source Identification, Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 14, , 10.1021/es501475q
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