Cover: Contour plots showing the temporal and spatial variations in the atmospheric increases of carbon dioxide (CO2, upper panel) and methane (CH4, lower panel). The cooler colors (blue, violet, black) represent periods of lower than average growth rates and the warmer colors (yellow, orange, red) represent high growth rate periods. These plots are derived from measurements of thousands of samples collected at the CMDL Cooperative Air Sampling Network sites. The variations in the growth rates of these climatically important gases are due to interannual variations in the imbalances between sources and sinks, and also to variations in atmospheric transport. Because the major sources and sinks for CO2 and CH4 are different, their patterns of growth rate variations are usually dissimilar. An exception to this is the period of low, and even negative growth rates of both gases in 1992-1993, a period when anomalous low temperatures were observed. These observations provide powerful constraints on attempts to model the global carbon cycle. [This figure was created by Ken Masarie and Catherine McIntosh.]
For a copy of this report, please send your request to: Editorial Assistant, NOAA-CMDL - R/E/CG1, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303-3328 (e-mail: email@example.com)
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The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) is located in Boulder, Colorado, with observatories in Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; and South Pole, Antarctica. It is one of twelve components of the Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL) within the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). CMDL conducts research related to atmospheric constituents that are capable of forcing change in the climate of the earth through modification of the atmospheric radiative environment, for example greenhouse gases and aerosols, and those that may cause depletion of the global ozone layer.
This report is a summary of activities of CMDL for calendar years 1994 and 1995. It is the 23rd consecutive report issued by this organization and its Air Resources Laboratory/Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change predecessor since formation in 1972. From 1972 through 1993 (numbers 1 through 22), reports were issued annually. However, with this issue we begin a 2-year reporting cycle, which stems from a need to most efficiently use the time and financial resources of our staff and laboratory and from a general trend towards electronic media. In this respect, CMDL has developed a comprehensive internet home page during the past 2 years. There you will find information about our major groups and observatories, latest events and press releases, publications, data availability, and personnel. Numerous data graphs and ftp data files are available. The URL address is http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov. Information (program descriptions, accomplishments, publications, plans, data access, etc.) on CMDL parent organizations can best be obtained via the internet. Their URL addresses are ERL: http://www.erl.noaa.gov; OAR: http://www.oar.noaa.gov; NOAA: http://www.noaa.gov.
In 1995, Eldon Ferguson retired from federal service and from the CMDL Director's position that he held from the formation of the Laboratory in 1990. On a personal note, we extend to him our best wishes for the future and our thanks for scientific guidance and direction in the past. In 1996, David Hofmann, the CMDL Chief Scientist since 1990, was appointed Director of CMDL.
This report is organized into the following major sections:
- Observatory, Meteorology, and Data Management
- Carbon Cycle
- Aerosols and Radiation
- Ozone and Water Vapor
- Nitrous Oxide and Halocompounds
- Cooperative Programs
These are followed by a list of CMDL staff publications for 1994-1995.
Inquiries and/or comments are welcomed and should be addressed to:
Director, R/E/CG, NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303-3328