The entire GLOBALVIEW-CO2 web content is presented here. Click here to download the PDF version.


Introduction

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is a product of the Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project. While the project is coordinated and maintained by the Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases Group of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA ESRL), it is a cooperative effort among the many organizations and institutions making high-quality atmospheric CO2 measurements.

What's New in 2013?

GLOBALVIEW movie

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is an attempt to address issues of temporal discontinuity and data sparseness in atmospheric observations and is a tool intended for use in carbon cycle modeling. The impetus for the work done by the many cooperating organizations and institutions is to make high-precision atmospheric measurements of trace gas species that will facilitate a better understanding of the processes controlling their abundance. These and other measurements have been widely used to constrain atmospheric models that derive plausible source/sink scenarios. Serious obstacles to this approach are the paucity of sampling sites and the lack of temporal continuity among observations from different locations. Consequently, there is the potential for models to misinterpret these spatial and temporal gaps resulting in derived source/sink scenarios that are unduly influenced by the sampling distribution.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is derived from atmospheric measurements but contains no actual data. Observations used to derive the data product have been selected for baseline conditions. Baseline selection is site-specific. In most instances, selection is done by the PIs before submission to GLOBALVIEW and based on their knowledge of local conditions. Users are encouraged to review the literature for further details on baseline selection strategies. To facilitate use with carbon cycle modeling studies, the measurements have been processed (smoothed, interpolated, and extrapolated) resulting in extended records that are evenly incremented in time. Be aware that information contained in the actual data may be lost in this process. Users are encouraged to review the actual data in the literature, in data archives (CDIAC, WDCGG), or by contacting the participating laboratories.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is derived using the data extension and data integration techniques described by Masarie and Tans, [1995]. These techniques were developed using CO2 measurements from the NOAA ESRL cooperative air sampling network. Carbon dioxide measurement records from other laboratories have been extended and integrated with the NOAA ESRL measurements into GLOBALVIEW-CO2 with careful attention to both methodology and standard scales.


Collaborators

We thank our colleagues at the following laboratories for their participation in and contribution to GLOBALVIEW-CO2. Each laboratory has been assigned a Lab ID Number that is used to associate GLOBALVIEW records with the contributing lab.

AUSTRALIA

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) [Lab # 2]

Paul Steele (Paul.Steele@csiro.au)
Paul Krummel (Paul.Krummel@csiro.au)
Ray Langenfelds (Ray.Langenfelds@csiro.au)
Marcel van der Schoot (Marcel.vanderSchoot@csiro.au)
CSIRO Logo

BRAZIL

Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares (IPEN) [Lab # 26]

Luciana V. Gatti (lvgatti@ipen.br)
Emanuel Gloor (e.gloor@leeds.ac.uk; )
John B. Miller (NOAA)
IPEN Logo

CANADA

Environment Canada (EC) [Lab # 6]

Doug Worthy (Doug.Worthy@ec.gc.ca)
EC Logo

CANADA

Institute of Ocean Sciences (IOS) [Lab # 12]

C.S. Wong
J. Page (John.Page@dfo-mpo.gc.ca)
Doug Worthy (EC)
IOS Logo

FINLAND

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) [Lab # 30]

Juha Hatakka (juha.hatakka@fmi.fi)
Tuula Aalto (tuula.aalto@fmi.fi)
FMI Logo

FRANCE

Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ (LSCE) [Lab # 11]

Michel Ramonet (Michel.Ramonet@lsce.ipsl.fr)
Marc Delmotte (marc.delmotte@lsce.ipsl.fr)
Martina Schmidt (Martina.Schmidt@lsce.ipsl.fr)
Benoit Wastine (benoit.wastine@lsce.ipsl.fr)
Philippe Ciais (philippe.ciais@lsce.ipsl.fr)
Gilles Bentz
J.A. Morgui (IC3)
N. Mihalopoulos (ECPL)
Francois Gheusi (OMP)
LSCE Logo

GERMANY

University of Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik (UHEI-IUP) [Lab # 22]

Ingeborg Levin (ingeborg.levin@iup.uni-heidelberg.de)
Samuel Hammer (samuel.hammer@iup.uni-heidelberg.de)
UHEI-IUP Logo

HUNGARY

Hungarian Meteorological Service (HMS) [Lab # 35]

Laszlo Haszpra (haszpra.l@met.hu)
HMS Logo

ITALY

Italian Air Force Meteorological Service (IAFMS) [Lab # 17]

Attilio di Diodato (attilio.didiodato@aeronautica.difesa.it)
Marco Alemanno (marco.alemanno@aeronautica.difesa.it)
Luigi Lauria (luigi.lauria@aeronautica.difesa.it)
A. Proietti
IAFMS Logo

JAPAN

Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) [Lab # 19]

Hiroshi Koide (hkoide@met.kishou.go.jp)
JMA Logo

JAPAN

National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) (NIES-MRI) [Lab # 42]

Toshinobu Machida (tmachida@nies.go.jp; NIES)
Hidekazu Matsueda (hmatsued@mri-jma.go.jp; MRI)
Yousuke Sawa (ysawa@mri-jma.go.jp; MRI)
NIES-MRI Logo

JAPAN

National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) [Lab # 20]

Hitoshi Mukai (lnmukaih@nies.go.jp)
NIES Logo

JAPAN

National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) [Lab # 9]

Shinji Morimoto (TU)
Takakiyo Nakazawa (TU)
Shuji Aoki (TU)
NIPR Logo

NETHERLANDS

University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research (RUG) [Lab # 44]

Harro Meijer (h.a.j.meijer@rug.nl)
RUG Logo

PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CMA) [Lab # 33]

Lingxi Zhou (zhoulx@cams.cma.gov.cn)
Shuangxi Fang (fangsx@cams.cma.gov.cn)
CMA Logo

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Seoul National University/School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (SNU) [Lab # 24]

K.R. Kim (krkim@snu.ac.kr)
Mi-Kyung Park (mkpark33@snu.ac.kr)
Sunyoung Park
Jooil Kim
SNU Logo

SOUTH AFRICA

South African Weather Service (SAWS) [Lab # 36]

Ernst Brunke (ernst.brunke@weathersa.co.za)
Casper Labuschagne (Casper.Labuschagne@weathersa.co.za)
Eckhart Scheel (Retired from IMK-IFU)
SAWS Logo

SPAIN

Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET) [Lab # 27]

Angel J. Gomez-Pelaez (agomezp@aemet.es)
Ramon Ramos
Vanessa Gomez-Trueba
Ruben Campo-Hernandez
AEMET Logo

SWITZERLAND

Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA) [Lab # 5]

Martin Steinbacher (martin.steinbacher@empa.ch)

SWITZERLAND

University of Bern, Physics Institute, Climate and Environmental Physics (KUP) [Lab # 49]

Markus Leuenberger (leuenberger@climate.unibe.ch)
KUP Logo

UNITED STATES

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) [Lab # 64]

Sebastien Biraud (SCBiraud@lbl.gov)
Margaret Torn (MSTorn@lbl.gov)
LBNL Logo

UNITED STATES

NOAA Global Monitoring Division (NOAA) [Lab # 1]

Arlyn Andrews (arlyn.andrews@noaa.gov)
Colm Sweeney (colm.sweeney@noaa.gov)
Pieter Tans (pieter.tans@noaa.gov)
Ed Dlugokencky (ed.dlugokencky@noaa.gov)
Kirk Thoning (kirk.w.thoning@noaa.gov)
NOAA Logo

UNITED STATES

National Center For Atmospheric Research (NCAR) [Lab # 3]

Britt Stephens (stephens@ucar.edu)
NCAR Logo

UNITED STATES

Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) [Lab # 4]

Ralph Keeling (rkeeling@ucsd.edu)
SIO Logo

What's New

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013 is the 18th annual update of this product. Since 1996, GLOBALVIEW-CO2 has been accessed more than 17200 times by users from over 70 countries. The product is accessed, on average, 82 times monthly. This update includes 336 extended records derived from observations made by 24 laboratories from 15 countries. Data updates through 2012 (where available) have been used to derive GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013. The data product includes extended records for the period January 1, 1979 to January 1, 2013. Important additions, deletions and modifications are highlighted below. Changes to previous GLOBALVIEW-CO2 updates may be found in Version History.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013

  1. Release Date: 23 December 2013
  2. Important changes to GLOBALVIEW-CO2
    The ObsPack Fair Use statement has been modified. Beginning November 2013, all new ObsPack data products will have a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registered with the International DOI Foundation. In addition to the conditions of the ObsPack Fair Use statement, users must also include the ObsPack product citation in any publication or presentation using the product. The required citation is included in every data product and in the automated e-mail sent to the user during product download. Also beginning November 2013, there are no longer any exceptions to this policy; it applies to all ObsPack products including GLOBALVIEW. The DOI serves two purposes. First, it better documents the specific data product used in published work, and second, it improves our ability to track product usage.
  3. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • CPT Cape Point, South Africa (NOAA)
    Discrete aircraft measurements:
    • ALF Alta Floresta, Brazil (IPEN)
    • RBO Rio Branco, Brazil (IPEN)
    • TAB Tabatinga, Brazil (IPEN)
    Continuous surface or single-level tower measurements:
    • BCKDTA Afternoon average values from Behchoko, Northwest Territories, Canada (EC)
    • JFJNTA Nighttime average values from Jungfraujoch, Switzerland operated by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)
  4. Lab Clarification
    The lab abbrevation NOAA is equivalent to and replaces the abbreviation ESRL. Both refer to the NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division, Carbon Cycle Group.

Content Description

The GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013 product includes a single extended data file per data record. Each file includes the extended record, the suggested relative weights assigned to each value, the reference marine boundary layer time series at the latitude of the sampling location, and extensive metadata. The Reference Marine Boundary Layer matrix, which was provided in previous releases, is no longer available. Instead, NOAA has made a more comprehensive MBL reference product available at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/mbl/. Statistical summaries of key features in the observations are also no longer provided. Data files are presented using the new Observation Package (ObsPack) framework. Click here to learn more about ObsPack data products including GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013.

EXTENDED RECORDS

The extended record file names have changed from previous updates. The new file name structure is described here.

Extended records include extensive sampling site, measurement laboratory, and data provider information. Each item in the extended record includes

  1. [year month day] "Weekly" synchronized time steps in Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). Each year has 48 "weekly" steps. "Synchronized" means that the synchronization period and the time steps are the same for all extended record files.
  2. [gv_sc] Smoothed values, S(t), extracted from a curve fitted to measurement data that have been selected for conditions where the sampled air is thought to be representative of large well-mixed air parcels. Internal and external gaps in the measurement record are denoted as default values.
  3. [gv_ref] The latitude reference time-series, based on marine boundary layer sites, constructed at the sine (latitude) of the measurement site. The latitude reference is defined at all time steps.
  4. [gv_diff] The difference climatology describes how the site differs from marine boundary layer (MBL) sites that are nearby in latitude. The difference climatology is defined at all time steps.
  5. [gv_wt] Scaled weights determined using the relative weighting scheme described by Masarie and Tans, [1995]. Suggest weights are computed using annual statistics. If insufficient measurements exist, suggested weights cannot be determined and are assigned a default minimum weight of one (1).
  6. [gv_wt_rsd] Residual standard deviation (RSD) of the measurements about the smooth curve, S(t), with annual resolution. Years with fewer than six (6) measurements are assigned default values.
  7. [gv_wt_num] The number of residuals per year used in the RSD determination.

The length of the files depends on the number of years in the synchronization period.

Relative Weights

USING EXTENDED RECORDS
  • Extended records are comprised of smoothed values, and interpolated and extrapolated values defined at each time step of the synchronization period. Those who wish to use extended records in their modeling application must simply add the reference MBL vector (gv_ref) to the difference climatology (gv_diff), i.e., extended record = REF + diff. Users will notice that S(t) = REF + diff wherever smoothed values (gv_sc) exist.

  • You may also choose to use only the smoothed values (gv_sc) from the sites that are synchronized which will have assigned default values where there are no measurements.
USING RELATIVE WEIGHTS
  • Any method used to fill spatial and temporal gaps in observational records is forced to make assumptions creating uncertainty in the resulting data product. Each extended value has an associated suggested relative weight that indicates the relative significance of each value in the extended file. All smooth values (derived directly from the actual measurements) receive a relative weight (ranging from 2 to 10) that depends on sampling density and measurement variability. All filled values (interpolated and extrapolated) receive a fixed weight of 1.

  • We strongly encourage users of this data product to consider the suggested relative weights, which provide an estimate of the relative significance of each value in the extended record.
EXTENDED RECORD CAVEATS
  • Occasional discontinuities at the transition between smoothed values and extrapolated values may be significant in certain modeling applications. These occur when values derived from data extension techniques (based on average behavior) join actual measurements that depart from average behavior. Discontinuities may occur at either end of the smoothed measurement record.

  • Discontinuities within periods of interpolated or extrapolated values may occur when MBL measurement records begin, end, or are interrupted for long periods of time. Some discontinuities may be significant in certain modeling applications. Serious discontinuities are identified below.

  • The data extension procedure requires at least 2 years of observations.

Time step Latitude1 Cause
1979.666667 10°S ESRL sampling program at Ascension Island begins
1981.062500 35°S LSCE sampling program at Amsterdam Island begins
1984.208333 5°N ESRL sampling program at Christmas Island, Kiribati begins
1987.000000 25°S ESRL shipboard sampling in Pacific Ocean begins
1991.229167 45°S ESRL sampling program at Crozet begins
2000.812500 20°S ESRL shipboard sampling in Pacific Ocean suspended
2001.958333 41°S NIWA data from Baring Head, New Zealand become unavailable
1Specifies the 5° latitude band most strongly influenced by the change in the MBL measurement distribution

Conditions of Use

In order to use GLOBALVIEW-CO2 as it was intended, users should read and understand the documentation provided here. It is also highly recommended that users consult the relevant published literature; a partial list is provided in References.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is derived from measurements but contains no actual data. To facilitate use with carbon cycle modeling studies, the measurements have been processed (smoothed, interpolated, and extrapolated) resulting in extended records that are evenly incremented in time. Be aware that information contained in the actual data may be lost in this process. Users are encouraged to review the actual data in the literature, in data archives (CDIAC, WDCGG), or by contacting the participating laboratories.

Smoothed, interpolated, and extrapolated values in the extended records are determined with varying degrees of confidence. We strongly encourage users to consider the relative weights assigned to these values when using this product.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is subject to change as members of the Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project reserve the right to adjust individual measurement records based on recalibrations of standard gases and instruments.

The GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product continues to evolve. Extended records may change as techniques are refined and new data are added.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is freely available. Anyone using GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is agreeing to acknowledge its authors. The list of cooperating scientists and their organizations and institutions is large and would be cumbersome to include as a reference. The required citation for GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013 is

Cooperative Global Atmospheric Data Integration Project. 2013, updated annually. Multi-laboratory compilation of synchronized and gap-filled atmospheric carbon dioxide records for the period 1979-2012 (obspack_co2_1_GLOBALVIEW-CO2_2013_v1.0.4_2013-12-23). Compiled by NOAA Global Monitoring Division: Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. Data product accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/OBSPACK/1002

GLOBALVIEW is coordinated and maintained by NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle. Questions may be directed to Ken Masarie (Project Manager).


Citation

GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is freely available. Anyone using GLOBALVIEW-CO2 is agreeing to acknowledge its authors. The list of cooperating scientists and their organizations and institutions is large and would be cumbersome to include as a reference, thus GLOBALVIEW-CO2 and its contributors should be referenced as [GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013], and in a list of references as

Cooperative Global Atmospheric Data Integration Project. 2013, updated annually. Multi-laboratory compilation of synchronized and gap-filled atmospheric carbon dioxide records for the period 1979-2012 (obspack_co2_1_GLOBALVIEW-CO2_2013_v1.0.4_2013-12-23). Compiled by NOAA Global Monitoring Division: Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. Data product accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/OBSPACK/1002


Data Comparability

Data Preparation

GLOBALVIEW uses discrete and quasi-continuous measurements from fixed surface and tower sites and moving ship and aircraft sites. Discrete samples are collected in situ at weekly to monthly intervals and returned to the collaborating measurement laboratory for analysis. Quasi-continuous samples are measured in situ using systems located at the sampling location.

Each measurement record used to derive GLOBALVIEW-CO2 has been carefully edited and selected by the organization or institution contributing the observations. Observations used to derive the data product have been selected for baseline conditions to exclude samples influenced by local source and sinks . Baseline selection is site-specific. In most instances, selection is done by the PIs before submission to GLOBALVIEW and based on their knowledge of local conditions. The measurement records are accumulated at NOAA ESRL along with documentation and references. Wherever possible, NOAA ESRL attempts to reproduce the selected data set based on descriptions in the literature. Users are encouraged to review the literature for further details on baseline selection strategies.

Quasi-continuous data used to derive GLOBALVIEW have been preprocessed to produce a single value per day. Often this averaging process is performed by the collaborating laboratories using well-established methods that have been published in the literature. In some instances, the averaging is done at NOAA and in cooperation with the contributing laboratories. Table 1 summarizes the different averaging strategies. Users are encouraged to review the literature and contact the measurement labs directly for details about and access to the actual observations.

Table 1. Summary of strategies used to compute daily values from quasi-continuous data.
LAB [lab #] SITE1,2 COMPUTATION OF DAILY VALUES3
NOAA [01] Surface
<site>dta_01C0
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST from BRW, SMO, and SPO.
NOAA [01] Mountain Top
mlonta_01C0
All valid4 data between 0-4 LST.
NOAA [01] Towers
<site><ht>_01C3
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST.
NCAR [03] Mountain Top
<site>dta_03C3
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST from highest available intake. Averages computed by NCAR.
NCAR [03] Mountain Top
<site>nta_03C3
All valid4 data between 0-4 LST from highest available intake. Averages computed by NCAR.
EMPA [05] Mountain Top
jfjnta_05C0
All valid4 data between 2-6 LST.
EC [06] Surface (marine site)
altdta_06C0, wsadta_06C0
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST from hightest available intake.
EC [06] Surface (continental site)
<site>dta_06C0
All valid4 data between 15-17 LST.
NIPR [9] Surface
<site>_09C0
Averages computed by NIPR.
LSCE [11] Surface
mhdcbc_11C0
All valid4 continental-sector data as determined by LSCE.
LSCE [11] Surface
mhdmbc_11C0
All valid4 marine-sector data as determined by LSCE.
LSCE [11] Towers
<site><ht>_11C3
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST.
IAFMS [17] Mountain Top
cmn_17C0
All valid4 data as determined by IAFMS.
JMA [19] Surface
<site>_19C0
Averages computed by JMA.
NIES [20] Surface
<site>_20C0
Averages computed by NIES.
UHEI-IUP [22] Surface
<site>dta_22C0
All valid4 data between 13-17 LST.
AEMET [27] Mountain Top
izonta_27C0
All valid4 nighttime data as determined by AEMET. Averages computed by AEMET.
FMI [30] Surface
palcbc_30C0
All valid4 continental-sector data as determined by FMI.
FMI [30] Surface
palmbc_30C0
All valid4 marine-sector data as determined by FMI.
CMA [33] Mountain Top
wlg_33C0
Averages computed by CAMS.
HMS [35] Tower
hun<ht>_35C3
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST.
SAWS [36] Surface
cpt_36C0
Averages computed by SAWS.
RUG [44] Surface
<site>dta_44C0
All valid4 data between 12-16 LST.
KUP [49] Mountain Top
jfjnta_49C0
All valid4 data between 2-6 LST.
LBNL [64] Surface
<site>dta_64C0
All valid4 data between 14-18 LST.

1<site> is a placeholder for site code.
2<ht> is a placeholder for tower intake height (magl).
3Daily values computed by NOAA unless otherwise specified.
4In this context "Valid Data" means the observation is thought to be free of sampling and analytical problems and has not been locally influenced.

Data Integration

Comparison Experiments

A primary challenge for the GLOBALVIEW project and for the atmospheric trace gas measurement community is to ensure that measurements made using independent techniques can be integrated into larger cooperative data sets without introducing significant biases. This is a difficult challenge (see Data Integration). Several strategies exist to make this assessment including ongoing comparisons of 1) measurements of air from the same high-pressure cylinders; 2) measurements from glass flasks filled from the same high-pressure cylinders; 3) measurements from low-pressure cylinders decanted from high-pressure cylinders; 4) measurements of air from the same ambient samples; and 5) measurements from the same location (co-located) using different methodologies. Ongoing direct comparison of co-located atmospheric measurements is one of the more effective strategies [See, for example, Masarie et al., 2001]. Where ongoing comparison experiments of atmospheric measurements do not exist, we must rely on other less direct methods. In all instances, selected measurements are compared to other measurement records that are nearby in latitude as an additional assessment of potential calibration or sampling problems. The first step in assessing measurement comparability between independent records is to ensure data are reported on a consistent standard scale.

Standard Scale

The majority of laboratories contributing to the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product are members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network. Data from the GAW network are reported relative to the WMO CO2 Mole Fraction Scale, which is maintained and propagated by the Central CO2 Laboratory (CCL). GAW laboratories are required to maintain direct traceability of their internal calibration scale to the CCL. A few laboratories contributing to the data product are not part of the WMO GAW program and thus provide data referenced to some other scale (see Table 2). This section describes ongoing efforts to assess the comparability of calibration scales and atmospheric observations.

  1. The WMO CO2 Mole Fraction Scale

    The WMO Scale is based on regular determinations of the mole fraction of CO2 in dry air from a set of 15 primary standards using a high precision manometric system with NIST-traceable measurements to temperature, pressure and volume [Tans et al., 2003; Zhao et al., 1997]. Uncertainty of the WMO Scale is estimated to be ~0.06 µmol mol-1 (one sigma). Reproducibility of the determinations is about 0.03 µmol mol-1 (one sigma), based on repeated manometric analyses [Zhao and Tans, 2006]. The scale as defined by the primary standards (projected 30 year average lifetime) is subsequently propagated to a set of 9 secondary (transfer) standards (3-4 year average lifetime) using relative nondispersive infrared (NDIR) measurement techniques. NDIR measurement reproducibilityp is ~0.01 µmol mol-1. Propagation of the WMO Scale from the Primary cylinders to working standards, via intermediate Secondary standards maintained by the CCL, has a reproducibility of ~0.02 µmol mol-1 (one sigma). Cylinders are calibrated for other laboratories against the transfer standards using the NDIR methodology. The use of a calibration hierarchy enables the CCL to occasionally re-assign, when justification for such a change is strong, the value of a primary or secondary standard and propagate the change, in a straightforward manner, to all dependent calibrations.

    Recent History

    In 1995, the WMO designated NOAA ESRL as the Central CO2 Laboratory (CCL) responsible for the maintenance of the absolute WMO Mole Fraction Scale for carbon dioxide. Before that time, the scale had been maintained by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO).

    In 1990, ESRL prepared 15 CO2-in-air reference gas mixtures in large aluminum high pressure cylinders for use as primary standards, ranging in CO2 mole fraction from approximately 250 to 520 µmol mol-1. These cylinders were calibrated four times at SIO by the NDIR method from mid-1991 to 1999. In 1996, ESRL began making absolute manometric determinations of its 15 "primary" standards. Between 1996 and 2001, values assigned to the 15 primaries were based on both SIO NDIR measurements and ESRL manometric determinations. Starting in 2002, the values assigned to the primaries have been based on manometric determinations by ESRL alone.

    Revisions to calibrations provided before 2005 by the CCL have been made. This is mainly due to revisions of the calibrations performed by Scripps between 1991 and 1999. Until 1996 the assigned values of the primary standards were based entirely on the infrared calibrations by Scripps. The average of all assigned values to the primaries increased by 0.16 µmol mol-1 from 1993 to 2002. Since then the average of all assigned values of the primaries has decreased by 0.01 µmol mol-1.

    The CO2 Mole Fraction Scale is defined by a polynomial curve fit to the Primary Standards. This is done to smooth out the uncertainty of assigned values to individual Primary Standards caused by the imprecision of the absolute calibrations, which is 0.03 ppm (see above). In September 2005, the WMO scale was revised, and a quadratic curve fit was used. After another set of calibrations of the Primaries in 2006-2007, the individual Primaries were revised by only minor amounts, up to 0.01 ppm. However, in defining the revised scale for 2007, we chose to use a cubic polynomial for the curve fit, which led to mole fraction-dependent differences between WMO-X2007 and WMO-X2005 between -0.03 and 0.03 ppm in the range of ambient air. All laboratories who have had cylinders calibrated by the CO2 CCL should have received revised calibration assignments based on the new scale. If you would like to receive revised values based on the new scale please contact Duane Kitzis (NOAA/ESRL).

  2. Traceability to the WMO Scale

    Not all data contributed to the Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project for CO2 are directly traceable to the WMO Mole Fraction Scale. A few laboratories have never had their standard gases calibrated by the CCL and report CO2 measurements relative to some other scale. Measurements from these laboratories are not directly traceable to the WMO Mole Fraction Scale. Several other laboratories have, at one time, had their standards calibrated by the CCL but have not maintained a routine recalibration schedule. Because the mole fraction of CO2 contained in high-pressure cylinders can potentially change with time due to CO2 adsorption or production within the cylinder or regulator, or through other effects, a laboratory's internal scale may potentially change with time relative to the WMO scale, which itself is anchored through absolute manometric determinations. Without routine recalibration by the CCL to reestablish direct traceability to the WMO-X2007 scale, laboratories contribute CO2 data that are no longer directly traceable to the WMO scale. Please note that recent calibration with the CCL does not necessarily imply measurements are on the most current WMO Mole Fraction Scale.

    Table 2. Traceability to the WMO scale based on most recent calibration by the CCL1.
    LAB [lab #] LAST CALIBRATION EVENT1 # of CYLINDERS3 REPORTED SCALE
    NOAA [01]2013-0817 (recal)WMO
    CSIRO [02]20128 (cal)WMO
    NCAR [03]2011-046 (recal)WMO
    SIO [04]----2008A SIO6
    EC [06]2012-018 (recal)WMO
    NIPR [09]----Tohoku Univ. 20106
    LSCE [11]2008-011 (cal)WMO4
    IAFMS [17]1998-105 (cal)WMO4
    JMA [19]2012-1014 (recal)WMO
    NIES [20]2006-095 (recal)NIES096
    UHEI-IUP [22]2010-074 (cal)WMO
    SNU [24]2004-094 (cal)2008A SIO6
    IPEN [26]2009-114 (cal)WMO
    AEMET [27]2008-092 (cal)WMO4
    FMI [30]2012-014 (cal)WMO
    CMA [33]2009-046 (cal)WMO4
    HMS [35]2012-094 (recal) and 2 (cal) WMO
    SAWS [36]2012-066 (recal)WMO
    NIES and MRI [42]2006-095 (recal)NIES096
    RUG [44]2012-055 (cal)WMO
    KUP [49]2012-125 (cal)WMO
    LBNL [64]2012-064 (cal)WMO

    1Only the most recent calibration event is shown. These postings are based on NOAA records and may not be completely accurate.
    2Calibration made at ESRL relative to the ESRL secondary standards.
    3Initial (cal)ibration or (recal)ibration by the CCL (NOAA) are specified.
    4Traceability to the WMO Mole Fraction Scale has lapsed. A recalibration schedule of every 3 years is thought to be the minimum frequency for maintaining traceability to the WMO scale.
    5Insufficient number of cylinders calibrated to properly link laboratory internal scale to WMO Mole Fraction Scale. The minimum number of standards required to establish traceability to the WMO Mole Fraction Scale is three.
    6Lab scale is indirectly linked to WMO Mole Fraction Scale.

  3. Comparisons of Standard Scales

    In an attempt to assess differences in standard scales among organizations making CO2 measurements, laboratories contributing to GLOBALVIEW-CO2 have participated in recent interlaboratory intercomparison or round robin (RR) experiments endorsed by the WMO and IAEA. Based on results from the recent (5th) RR experiment (courtesy of Dr. Lingxi Zhou, WMO RR Referee), the majority of participating laboratories agreed to within 0.1 µmol mol-1. Please note: These results only indicate how well each participant's laboratory standard scale is linked to the WMO scale at a particular moment in time. The level of compatibility based on ongoing and direct comparison of atmospheric measurements will likely be considerably different and vary in time.

Measurement Compatibility
Based on available comparison information, we estimate that data used to derive GLOBALVIEW-CO2 are compatible to within 0.3 µmol mol-1 when considered over several years. Please note: Compatibility on shorter time scales may be much larger. At present, the Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project for Carbon Dioxide has made no standard scale adjustments to any of the measurement records integrated into GLOBALVIEW-CO2. Records that appear to be affected by a serious scale discrepancy have been omitted at this time.

Observations

Map of Sampling Locations

Table 1 below provides general information on sampling locations for measurement records used to derive GLOBALVIEW-CO2. A summary of this list is available in (ASCII text format).

The descriptive information includes

  • Identification code and location. Note that in some instances the identification code includes additional information (see File Names).
  • Organization collecting the air sample or making the measurements.
  • Sampling strategy and platform.
  • Contributing laboratory and average sample frequency of available data. The average is based on the most recent 3 years of available data.
  • Position of the sampling site where latitude is in degrees (000 is at the equator, north of the equator is positive (+), and south of the equator negative (-)), longitude is in degrees (east of Meridian of Greenwich is positive (+), and west of Meridian of Greenwich is negative (-)), and altitude is in meters above sea level (masl).
  • Time period of available measurements.

Table 1. Descriptive Summary of all data used to derive GLOBALVIEW.
ABP_01D0, Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente, Laboratorio de Quimica Atmosferica
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
-12.77 -38.17 6
2006 10 - 2010 01
ABP_26D0, Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
IPEN, Sample every 11 days
-12.77 -38.17 6
2006 10 - 2010 01
AIA005_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 7 days
-40.53 144.30 [0-1000]1
1991 06 - 2000 09
AIA015_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 10 days
-40.53 144.30 [1000-2000]1
1991 06 - 2000 09
AIA025_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 21 days
-40.53 144.30 [2000-3000]1
1991 07 - 2000 09
AIA035_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 21 days
-40.53 144.30 [3000-4000]1
1991 09 - 2000 09
AIA045_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 14 days
-40.53 144.30 [4000-5000]1
1991 06 - 2000 09
AIA055_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 18 days
-40.53 144.30 [5000-6000]1
1992 04 - 2000 09
AIA065_02D2, Bass Strait/Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Aircraft
CSIRO, Sample every 15 days
-40.53 144.30 [6000-7000]1
1992 04 - 2000 09
ALF002_26P2, Alta Floresta, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 23 days
-8.92 -56.79 [0-500]1
2010 01 - 2013 03
ALF007_26P2, Alta Floresta, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 9 days
-8.92 -56.79 [500-1000]1
2010 01 - 2013 03
ALF012_26P2, Alta Floresta, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 17 days
-8.92 -56.79 [1000-1500]1
2010 01 - 2013 03
ALF017_26P2, Alta Floresta, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 9 days
-8.92 -56.79 [1500-2000]1
2010 01 - 2013 03
ALF025_26P2, Alta Floresta, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 10 days
-8.92 -56.79 [2000-3000]1
2010 01 - 2013 03
ALF037_26P2, Alta Floresta, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 4 days
-8.92 -56.79 [3000-4500]1
2010 01 - 2013 03
ALT_01D0, Alert, Nunavut, Canada
Environment Canada
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
82.45 -62.51 205
1985 06 - 2013 03
ALT_02D0, Alert, Nunavut, Canada
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 11 days
82.45 -62.51 210
1991 06 - 2013 01
ALT_04D0, Alert, Nunavut, Canada
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 16 days
82.45 -62.51 210
1989 11 - 2012 10
ALTDTA_06C0, Alert, Nunavut, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
82.45 -62.51 210
1988 01 - 2013 03
AMS_01D0, Amsterdam Island, France
Centre des Faibles Radioactivities/TAAF
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
-37.95 77.53 153
1982 03 - 1990 11
AMT012_01C3, Argyle, Maine, United States
University of Maine
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.03 -68.68 53+12
2003 09 - 2012 12
AMT107_01C3, Argyle, Maine, United States
University of Maine
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.03 -68.68 53+107
2003 09 - 2012 12
ASC_01D0, Ascension Island, United Kingdom
Met Office (United Kingdom)
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 4 days
-7.97 -14.40 90
1979 08 - 2013 03
ASK_01D0, Assekrem, Algeria
Office National de la Meteorologie
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
23.26 5.63 2715
1995 09 - 2012 12
AVI_01D0, St. Croix, Virgin Islands, United States
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
17.75 -64.75 6
1979 03 - 1990 08
AZR_01D0, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal
Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 23 days
38.77 -27.38 24
1979 12 - 2012 12
BAL_01D0, Baltic Sea, Poland
Morski Instytut Rybacki
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 4 days
55.35 17.22 28
1992 09 - 2011 06
BAO022_01C3, Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, Colorado, United States
ESRL Physical Sciences Division
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
40.05 -105.00 1584+22
2007 08 - 2012 12
BAO100_01C3, Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, Colorado, United States
ESRL Physical Sciences Division
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
40.05 -105.00 1584+100
2007 08 - 2012 12
BAO300_01C3, Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, Colorado, United States
ESRL Physical Sciences Division
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
40.05 -105.00 1584+300
2007 05 - 2012 12
BCKDTA_06C0, Behchoko, Northwest Territories, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
62.80 -116.05 179
2010 10 - 2013 03
BGU_11D0, Begur, Spain
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
LSCE, Sample every 10 days
41.97 3.23 11
2000 02 - 2011 12
BHD_01D0, Baring Head Station, New Zealand
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 22 days
-41.41 174.87 90
1999 11 - 2013 03
BKT_01D0, Bukit Kototabang, Indonesia
Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 21 days
-0.20 100.32 850
2004 01 - 2013 03
BME_01D0, St. Davids Head, Bermuda, United Kingdom
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Not Available
32.37 -64.65 17
1989 02 - 2010 01
BMW_01D0, Tudor Hill, Bermuda, United Kingdom
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
32.26 -64.88 60
1989 05 - 2013 03
BNE010_01P2, Beaver Crossing, Nebraska, United States
Hap
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
40.80 -97.18 [0-2000]1
2004 10 - 2011 04
BNE030_01P2, Beaver Crossing, Nebraska, United States
Hap
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
40.80 -97.18 [2000-4000]1
2004 10 - 2011 04
BNE050_01P2, Beaver Crossing, Nebraska, United States
Hap
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
40.80 -97.18 [4000-6000]1
2004 10 - 2011 04
BNE070_01P2, Beaver Crossing, Nebraska, United States
Hap
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
40.80 -97.18 [6000-8000]1
2004 10 - 2011 04
BRADTA_06C0, Bratt's Lake Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
51.20 -104.70 595
2009 10 - 2013 03
BRW_01D0, Barrow, Alaska, United States
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
71.32 -156.61 27
1971 05 - 2013 03
BRWDTA_01C0, Barrow, Alaska, United States
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
71.32 -156.61 27
1980 01 - 2013 03
BSC_01D0, Black Sea, Constanta, Romania
Romanian Marine Research Institute
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
44.18 28.66 5
1995 03 - 2011 12
CAR030_01P2, Briggsdale, Colorado, United States
Weisbart Aircraft Services
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
40.37 -104.30 [2500-3500]1
1992 11 - 2013 03
CAR040_01P2, Briggsdale, Colorado, United States
Weisbart Aircraft Services
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
40.37 -104.30 [3500-4500]1
1992 11 - 2013 03
CAR050_01P2, Briggsdale, Colorado, United States
Weisbart Aircraft Services
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
40.37 -104.30 [4500-5500]1
1992 11 - 2013 03
CAR060_01P2, Briggsdale, Colorado, United States
Weisbart Aircraft Services
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
40.37 -104.30 [5500-6500]1
1992 11 - 2013 03
CAR070_01P2, Briggsdale, Colorado, United States
Weisbart Aircraft Services
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
40.37 -104.30 [6500-7500]1
1992 11 - 2013 03
CAR080_01P2, Briggsdale, Colorado, United States
Weisbart Aircraft Services
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
40.37 -104.30 [7500-8500]1
1992 11 - 2013 03
CBA_01D0, Cold Bay, Alaska, United States
U.S. National Weather Service
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
55.21 -162.72 57
1978 10 - 2012 11
CBA_04D0, Cold Bay, Alaska, United States
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 16 days
55.21 -162.72 21
1995 08 - 2012 09
CDLDTA_06C0, Candle Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
53.99 -105.12 600+30
2002 08 - 2011 12
CFA_02D0, Cape Ferguson, Queensland, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 19 days
-19.28 147.06 2
1991 06 - 2013 01
CGO_01D0, Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
CSIRO, Atmospheric Research
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 15 days
-40.68 144.69 94+70
1984 04 - 2013 03
CGO_02D0, Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 14 days
-40.68 144.69 94+70
1991 06 - 2013 01
CGO_04D0, Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 18 days
-40.68 144.69 94+70
1991 01 - 2012 12
CHMDTA_06C0, Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
49.68 -74.30 393
2007 08 - 2010 12
CHR_01D0, Christmas Island, Republic of Kiribati
Dive Kiribati
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
1.70 -157.15 5
1984 03 - 2012 12
CIB_01D0, Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera (CIBA), Spain
Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera, Univ. of Valladolid
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
41.81 -4.93 850
2009 05 - 2013 03
CMA010_01P2, Cape May, New Jersey, United States
AirTec, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
38.83 -74.32 [0-2000]1
2005 08 - 2013 03
CMA030_01P2, Cape May, New Jersey, United States
AirTec, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
38.83 -74.32 [2000-4000]1
2005 08 - 2013 03
CMA050_01P2, Cape May, New Jersey, United States
AirTec, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
38.83 -74.32 [4000-6000]1
2005 08 - 2013 03
CMA070_01P2, Cape May, New Jersey, United States
AirTec, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
38.83 -74.32 [6000-8000]1
2005 08 - 2013 03
CMN_17C0, Mt. Cimone Station, Italy
Italian Air Force Meteorological Service
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
IAFMS, Sample every 1 days
44.18 10.70 2165
1979 03 - 2012 12
CMO_01D0, Cape Meares, Oregon, United States
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 25 days
45.48 -123.97 35
1982 03 - 1997 12
COI_20C0, Cape Ochi-ishi, Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NIES, Sample every 1 days
43.15 145.50 45
1995 08 - 2010 06
CONN30_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[30.0..25.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONN25_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[25.0..20.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONN20_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[20.0..15.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONN15_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[15.0..10.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONN10_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[10.0..5.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONN05_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[5.0..0.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CON000_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[0.0..-5.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONS05_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[-5.0..-10.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 12
CONS10_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[-10.0..-15.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 04 - 2012 06
CONS15_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[-15.0..-20.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1993 06 - 2012 12
CONS20_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[-20.0..-25.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1994 07 - 2012 12
CONS25_42D2, CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner),
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)
Discrete, Aircraft
NIES-MRI, Not Available
[-25.0..-30.0]1 [140.0..152.0]1 [8000-13000]1
1994 07 - 2012 12
CPA_02D0, Charles Point, Darwin, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 16 days
-12.42 130.57 3
1992 10 - 1998 12
CPT_01D0, Cape Point, South Africa
South African Weather Service
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
-34.35 18.49 260
2010 02 - 2013 03
CPT_36C0, Cape Point, South Africa
South African Weather Service
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
SAWS, Sample every 2 days
-34.35 18.49 230+30
2000 01 - 2012 12
CRI_02D0, Cape Rama, India
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 19 days
15.08 73.83 60
1993 02 - 2013 01
CRZ_01D0, Crozet Island, France
Centre des Faibles Radioactivities/TAAF
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
-46.43 51.85 202
1991 03 - 2013 03
CSJ_12D0, Cape St. James, British Columbia, Canada
Institute of Ocean Sciences
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
IOS, Sample every 13 days
51.93 -131.02 89
1979 05 - 1991 07
CYA_02D0, Casey, Antarctica, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 19 days
-66.28 110.52 47
1997 06 - 2012 12
DND010_01P2, Dahlen, North Dakota, United States
FARGO JET CENTER
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
47.50 -99.24 [0-2000]1
2004 09 - 2013 03
DND030_01P2, Dahlen, North Dakota, United States
FARGO JET CENTER
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
47.50 -99.24 [2000-4000]1
2004 09 - 2013 03
DND050_01P2, Dahlen, North Dakota, United States
FARGO JET CENTER
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 17 days
47.50 -99.24 [4000-6000]1
2004 09 - 2013 03
DND070_01P2, Dahlen, North Dakota, United States
FARGO JET CENTER
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
47.50 -99.24 [6000-8000]1
2004 09 - 2013 03
DRP_01D1, Drake Passage, N/A
National Science Foundation
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 20 days
-59.00 -64.69 10
2006 03 - 2013 03
EGBDTA_06C0, Egbert, Ontario, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
44.23 -79.78 251+25
2005 03 - 2013 03
EIC_01D0, Easter Island, Chile
Direccion Meteorologica de Chile
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
-27.16 -109.43 69
1994 01 - 2013 03
ESP_02D0, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Not Available
49.38 -126.54 7
1993 08 - 2001 07
ESPDTA_06C0, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
49.38 -126.54 7+45
2009 03 - 2013 03
ESP005_01P2, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
49.38 -126.54 [0-1000]1
2002 11 - 2013 03
ESP015_01P2, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 6 days
49.38 -126.54 [1000-2000]1
2002 11 - 2013 03
ESP025_01P2, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
49.38 -126.54 [2000-3000]1
2002 11 - 2013 03
ESP035_01P2, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
49.38 -126.54 [3000-4000]1
2002 11 - 2013 03
ESP045_01P2, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
49.38 -126.54 [4000-5000]1
2002 11 - 2013 03
ESP055_01P2, Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
49.38 -126.54 [5000-6000]1
2002 11 - 2013 03
ESTDTA_06C0, Esther, Alberta, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
51.66 -110.21 707+45
2010 01 - 2013 03
ETLDTA_06C0, East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
54.35 -104.98 492+105
2005 08 - 2013 03
ETL010_01P2, East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
54.35 -104.98 [0-2000]1
2005 10 - 2013 03
ETL030_01P2, East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
54.35 -104.98 [2000-4000]1
2005 10 - 2013 03
ETL050_01P2, East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
54.35 -104.98 [4000-6000]1
2005 10 - 2013 03
ETL070_01P2, East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada
Environment Canada
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 20 days
54.35 -104.98 [6000-8000]1
2005 10 - 2013 03
FIK_11D0, Finokalia, Crete, Greece
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
LSCE, Sample every 16 days
35.34 25.67 150
2006 07 - 2011 12
FSDDTA_06C0, Fraserdale, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
49.88 -81.57 210+40
1990 02 - 2013 03
GMI_01D0, Mariana Islands, Guam
University of Guam/Marine Laboratory
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 6 days
13.39 144.66 5
1979 03 - 2013 03
GOZ_01D0, Dwejra Point, Gozo, Malta
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Environment
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Not Available
36.05 14.89 6
1993 10 - 1999 02
GSN_24D0, Gosan, Cheju Island, Republic of Korea
Seoul National University/School of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SNU, Sample every 20 days
33.28 126.15 72
1990 10 - 2011 12
HAA005_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
21.23 -158.95 [0-1000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA015_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
21.23 -158.95 [1000-2000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA025_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
21.23 -158.95 [2000-3000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA035_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
21.23 -158.95 [3000-4000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA045_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
21.23 -158.95 [4000-5000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA055_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
21.23 -158.95 [5000-6000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA065_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
21.23 -158.95 [6000-7000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAA075_01P2, Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States
Pacific Air Charters, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 19 days
21.23 -158.95 [7000-8000]1
1999 05 - 2008 04
HAT_20C0, Hateruma Island, Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NIES, Sample every 1 days
24.05 123.80 10
1993 10 - 2010 06
HBA_01D0, Halley Station, Antarctica, United Kingdom
British Antarctic Survey
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
-75.61 -26.21 35
1983 01 - 2012 12
HDPDTA_03C0, Hidden Peak (Snowbird), Utah, United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
40.56 -111.65 3351+18
2006 04 - 2012 12
HDPNTA_03C0, Hidden Peak (Snowbird), Utah, United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
40.56 -111.65 3351+18
2006 04 - 2012 12
HEIDTA_22C0, Heidelberg, Germany
University of Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
UHEI-IUP, Sample every 1 days
49.42 8.67 116+30
1996 01 - 2012 12
HFM005_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
42.54 -72.17 [0-1000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HFM015_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
42.54 -72.17 [1000-2000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HFM025_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
42.54 -72.17 [2000-3000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HFM035_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
42.54 -72.17 [3000-4000]1
1999 11 - 2007 10
HFM045_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 19 days
42.54 -72.17 [4000-5000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HFM055_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
42.54 -72.17 [5000-6000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HFM065_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
42.54 -72.17 [6000-7000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HFM075_01P2, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States
FOUR STAR AVIATION
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
42.54 -72.17 [7000-8000]1
1999 11 - 2007 11
HIL010_01P2, Homer, Illinois, United States
M & M Aviation Services, Ltd.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
40.07 -87.91 [0-2000]1
2004 10 - 2013 03
HIL030_01P2, Homer, Illinois, United States
M & M Aviation Services, Ltd.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
40.07 -87.91 [2000-4000]1
2004 10 - 2013 03
HIL050_01P2, Homer, Illinois, United States
M & M Aviation Services, Ltd.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
40.07 -87.91 [4000-6000]1
2004 10 - 2013 03
HIL070_01P2, Homer, Illinois, United States
M & M Aviation Services, Ltd.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
40.07 -87.91 [6000-8000]1
2004 10 - 2013 03
HPB_01D0, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany
Deutscher Wetterdienst
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
47.80 11.02 941
2006 04 - 2013 03
HUN_01D0, Hegyhatsal, Hungary
Hungarian Meteorological Service
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
46.95 16.65 248+96
1993 03 - 2013 03
HUN010_35C3, Hegyhatsal, Hungary
Hungarian Meteorological Service
Quasi-continuous, Tower
HMS, Sample every 1 days
46.95 16.65 248+10
1994 09 - 2012 12
HUN048_35C3, Hegyhatsal, Hungary
Hungarian Meteorological Service
Quasi-continuous, Tower
HMS, Sample every 1 days
46.95 16.65 248+48
1994 09 - 2012 12
HUN082_35C3, Hegyhatsal, Hungary
Hungarian Meteorological Service
Quasi-continuous, Tower
HMS, Sample every 1 days
46.95 16.65 248+82
1994 09 - 2012 12
HUN115_35C3, Hegyhatsal, Hungary
Hungarian Meteorological Service
Quasi-continuous, Tower
HMS, Sample every 1 days
46.95 16.65 248+115
1994 09 - 2012 12
ICE_01D0, Storhofdi, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland
Icelandic Meteorological Office
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
63.40 -20.29 127
1992 10 - 2013 03
IZO_01D0, Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Izana Observatory/Meteorological State Agency of Spain
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
28.31 -16.50 2377
1991 11 - 2013 03
IZONTA_27C0, Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
AEMET, Sample every 1 days
28.31 -16.50 2372+8
1984 06 - 2012 12
JFJNTA_05C0, Jungfraujoch, Switzerland
Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EMPA, Sample every 0 days
46.55 7.99 3570
2010 01 - 2012 12
JFJNTA_49C0, Jungfraujoch, Switzerland
University of Bern, Physics Institute, Climate and Environmental Physics
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
KUP, Sample every 1 days
46.55 7.99 3570+10
2004 12 - 2011 12
KEY_01D0, Key Biscayne, Florida, United States
NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
25.67 -80.16 6
1972 12 - 2013 03
KUM_01D0, Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii, United States
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
19.52 -154.82 8
1976 03 - 2013 03
KUM_04D0, Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii, United States
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 8 days
19.52 -154.82 3
1993 10 - 2012 12
KZD_01D0, Sary Taukum, Kazakhstan
Kazakh Scientific Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
44.08 76.87 600
1997 10 - 2009 08
KZM_01D0, Plateau Assy, Kazakhstan
Kazakh Scientific Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
43.25 77.88 2524
1997 10 - 2009 08
LEF011_01C3, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.95 -90.27 472+11
2000 01 - 2009 05
LEF030_01C3, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.95 -90.27 472+30
2000 01 - 2012 12
LEF076_01C3, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.95 -90.27 472+76
2000 01 - 2009 05
LEF122_01C3, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.95 -90.27 472+122
2000 01 - 2012 12
LEF244_01C3, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.95 -90.27 472+244
2000 01 - 2009 05
LEF396_01C3, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
45.95 -90.27 472+396
2000 01 - 2012 12
LEF010_01P2, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
MBMAS
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
45.95 -90.27 [500-1500]1
2002 08 - 2013 03
LEF020_01P2, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
MBMAS
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 6 days
45.95 -90.27 [1500-2500]1
2002 08 - 2013 03
LEF030_01P2, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
MBMAS
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
45.95 -90.27 [2500-3500]1
2002 08 - 2013 03
LEF040_01P2, Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
MBMAS
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
45.95 -90.27 [3500-4500]1
2002 08 - 2013 03
LJO_04D0, La Jolla, California, United States
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 20 days
32.90 -117.30 10
1989 08 - 2012 12
LLBDTA_06C0, Lac La Biche, Alberta, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
54.95 -112.45 540+45
2007 04 - 2013 03
LMP_01D0, Lampedusa, Italy
Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l’Energia e l’Ambiente
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
35.52 12.62 50
2006 10 - 2013 03
LPO_11D0, Ile Grande, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
LSCE, Sample every 15 days
48.80 -3.58 10
2004 11 - 2011 11
LUTDTA_44C0, Lutjewad, Netherlands
University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
RUG, Sample every 1 days
53.40 6.35 1+60
2006 05 - 2009 06
MAA_02D0, Mawson Station, Antarctica, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Not Available
-67.62 62.87 32
1990 11 - 2013 01
MBC_01D0, Mould Bay, Nunavut, Canada
Environment Canada
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 5 days
76.25 -119.35 35
1980 04 - 1997 05
MEX_01D0, High Altitude Global Climate Observation Center, Mexico
Sistema Internacional de Monitoreo Ambiental
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
18.98 -97.31 4469
2009 01 - 2013 03
MHD_01D0, Mace Head, County Galway, Ireland
National University of Ireland, Galway
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
53.33 -9.90 26
1991 06 - 2013 03
MHDCBC_11C0, Mace Head, County Galway, Ireland
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
LSCE, Sample every 7 days
53.33 -9.90 25
1992 07 - 2011 12
MHDMBC_11C0, Mace Head, County Galway, Ireland
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
LSCE, Sample every 3 days
53.33 -9.90 25
1992 07 - 2011 12
MID_01D0, Sand Island, Midway, United States
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
28.21 -177.38 15
1985 05 - 2013 03
MKN_01D0, Mt. Kenya, Kenya
Kenya Meteorological Department
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
-0.06 37.30 3649
2003 12 - 2011 06
MLO_01D0, Mauna Loa, Hawaii, United States
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
19.54 -155.58 3437
1969 08 - 2013 03
MLONTA_01C0, Mauna Loa, Hawaii, United States
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
19.54 -155.58 3437
1974 05 - 2013 03
MLO_02D0, Mauna Loa, Hawaii, United States
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 14 days
19.54 -155.58 3397
1991 05 - 2013 01
MLO_04D0, Mauna Loa, Hawaii, United States
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 8 days
19.54 -155.58 3397
1991 01 - 2012 12
MNM_19C0, Minamitorishima, Japan
Japan Meteorological Agency
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
JMA, Sample every 1 days
24.28 153.98 8
1993 02 - 2012 12
MQA_02D0, Macquarie Island, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 15 days
-54.48 158.97 6
1991 02 - 2013 01
NHA005_01P2, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 6 days
42.95 -70.63 [0-1000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
NHA015_01P2, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
42.95 -70.63 [1000-2000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
NHA025_01P2, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
42.95 -70.63 [2000-3000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
NHA035_01P2, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
42.95 -70.63 [3000-4000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
NHA045_01P2, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 22 days
42.95 -70.63 [4000-5000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
NHA055_01P2, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
Private Party
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 14 days
42.95 -70.63 [5000-6000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
NWR_01D0, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, United States
University of Colorado/INSTAAR
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
40.05 -105.59 3526
1968 01 - 2013 03
NWRDTA_03C0, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
40.05 -105.59 3523+5
2005 08 - 2012 12
NWRNTA_03C0, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
40.05 -105.59 3523+5
2005 08 - 2012 12
OPW_01D0, Olympic Peninsula, Washington, United States
University of Washington
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 23 days
48.30 -124.63 486
1984 11 - 1990 05
ORL005_11D2, Orleans, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Aircraft
LSCE, Sample every 9 days
47.83 2.50 [0-1000]1
1997 05 - 2011 12
ORL015_11D2, Orleans, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Aircraft
LSCE, Sample every 25 days
47.83 2.50 [1000-2000]1
1997 11 - 2011 12
ORL025_11D2, Orleans, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Aircraft
LSCE, Sample every 22 days
47.83 2.50 [2000-3000]1
1998 03 - 2011 12
ORL035_11D2, Orleans, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Aircraft
LSCE, Sample every 25 days
47.83 2.50 [3000-4000]1
1996 06 - 2011 12
OXK_01D0, Ochsenkopf, Germany
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
50.03 11.81 1172
2003 03 - 2013 03
PAL_01D0, Pallas-Sammaltunturi, GAW Station, Finland
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
67.97 24.12 565
2001 12 - 2013 03
PALCBC_30C0, Pallas-Sammaltunturi, GAW Station, Finland
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
FMI, Sample every 3 days
67.97 24.12 560
1998 07 - 2012 12
PALMBC_30C0, Pallas-Sammaltunturi, GAW Station, Finland
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
FMI, Sample every 5 days
67.97 24.12 560
1998 07 - 2012 11
PDM_11D0, Pic Du Midi, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
LSCE, Sample every 12 days
42.94 0.14 2877
2001 06 - 2011 12
PFA015_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
65.07 -147.29 [1000-2000]1
1999 10 - 2013 03
PFA025_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
65.07 -147.29 [2000-3000]1
1999 10 - 2013 03
PFA035_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
65.07 -147.29 [3000-4000]1
1999 10 - 2013 03
PFA045_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
65.07 -147.29 [4000-5000]1
1999 09 - 2013 03
PFA055_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 17 days
65.07 -147.29 [5000-6000]1
1999 09 - 2013 03
PFA065_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 17 days
65.07 -147.29 [6000-7000]1
1999 09 - 2013 03
PFA075_01P2, Poker Flat, Alaska, United States
Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
65.07 -147.29 [7000-8000]1
1999 09 - 2012 09
POCS35_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-37.50..-32.50]1 [160.0..-176.0]1 20
1987 01 - 2012 01
POCS30_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-32.50..-27.50]1 [176.0..-168.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCS25_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-27.50..-22.50]1 [178.0..-160.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCS20_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-22.50..-17.50]1 [176.0..-164.0]1 20
1987 02 - 2012 01
POCS15_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-17.50..-12.50]1 [178.0..-160.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCS10_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-12.50..-7.50]1 [-178.0..-144.0]1 20
1987 03 - 2012 01
POCS05_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-7.50..-2.50]1 [-176.0..-142.0]1 20
1987 02 - 2012 01
POC000_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[-2.50..2.50]1 [-172.0..-138.0]1 20
1987 09 - 2012 01
POCN05_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[2.50..7.50]1 [-168.0..-134.0]1 20
1987 01 - 2012 01
POCN10_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[7.50..12.50]1 [-166.0..-132.0]1 20
1987 01 - 2011 11
POCN15_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[12.50..17.50]1 [-162.0..-128.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCN20_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[17.50..22.50]1 [-158.0..-124.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCN25_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[22.50..27.50]1 [-156.0..-122.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCN30_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[27.50..32.50]1 [-150.0..-120.0]1 20
1986 12 - 2012 01
POCN35_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[32.50..37.50]1 [-148.0..-126.0]1 20
1987 01 - 2007 06
POCN40_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[37.50..42.50]1 [-140.0..-132.0]1 20
1987 06 - 1996 08
POCN45_01D1, Pacific Ocean, N/A
Southern California Marine Institute
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Not Available
[42.50..47.50]1 [-134.0..-128.0]1 20
1987 06 - 1996 05
PSA_01D0, Palmer Station, Antarctica, United States
National Science Foundation
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
-64.92 -64.00 15
1978 01 - 2013 03
PSA_04D0, Palmer Station, Antarctica, United States
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 16 days
-64.92 -64.00 10
1996 09 - 2012 10
PTA_01D0, Point Arena, California, United States
Point Arena Lighthouse Keepers, Inc.
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
38.95 -123.74 22
1999 01 - 2011 05
RBADTA_03C0, Roof Butte, Arizona, United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
36.46 -109.10 2982+22
2007 10 - 2012 12
RBANTA_03C0, Roof Butte, Arizona, United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
36.46 -109.10 2982+22
2007 10 - 2012 12
RPB_01D0, Ragged Point, Barbados
Private Party
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
13.16 -59.43 20
1987 11 - 2013 03
RBO002_26P2, Rio Branco, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 23 days
-9.36 -67.60 [0-500]1
2009 12 - 2013 02
RBO007_26P2, Rio Branco, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 11 days
-9.36 -67.60 [500-1000]1
2009 12 - 2013 03
RBO012_26P2, Rio Branco, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 19 days
-9.36 -67.60 [1000-1500]1
2009 12 - 2013 03
RBO017_26P2, Rio Branco, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 10 days
-9.36 -67.60 [1500-2000]1
2009 12 - 2013 03
RBO025_26P2, Rio Branco, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 10 days
-9.36 -67.60 [2000-3000]1
2009 12 - 2013 03
RBO037_26P2, Rio Branco, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 5 days
-9.36 -67.60 [3000-4500]1
2009 12 - 2013 03
RTA005_01P2, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Air Rarotonga LTD.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
-21.25 -159.83 [0-1000]1
2000 06 - 2013 03
RTA015_01P2, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Air Rarotonga LTD.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
-21.25 -159.83 [1000-2000]1
2000 06 - 2013 03
RTA025_01P2, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Air Rarotonga LTD.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 23 days
-21.25 -159.83 [2000-3000]1
2000 06 - 2013 03
RTA035_01P2, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Air Rarotonga LTD.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
-21.25 -159.83 [3000-4000]1
2000 06 - 2013 03
RTA045_01P2, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Air Rarotonga LTD.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 24 days
-21.25 -159.83 [4000-5000]1
2000 06 - 2013 03
RYO_19C0, Ryori, Japan
Japan Meteorological Agency
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
JMA, Sample every 1 days
39.03 141.82 260
1987 01 - 2012 12
SAN002_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 9 days
-2.85 -54.95 [0-500]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN007_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 6 days
-2.85 -54.95 [500-1000]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN012_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 9 days
-2.85 -54.95 [1000-1500]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN017_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 8 days
-2.85 -54.95 [1500-2000]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN022_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 14 days
-2.85 -54.95 [2000-2500]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN027_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 9 days
-2.85 -54.95 [2500-3000]1
2007 03 - 2013 03
SAN032_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 14 days
-2.85 -54.95 [3000-3500]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN037_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 8 days
-2.85 -54.95 [3500-4000]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SAN042_26P2, Santarem, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 9 days
-2.85 -54.95 [4000-4500]1
2007 02 - 2013 03
SCA010_01P2, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Orion Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
32.77 -79.55 [0-2000]1
2003 08 - 2013 03
SCA030_01P2, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Orion Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 6 days
32.77 -79.55 [2000-4000]1
2003 08 - 2013 03
SCA050_01P2, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Orion Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
32.77 -79.55 [4000-6000]1
2003 08 - 2013 03
SCA070_01P2, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Orion Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
32.77 -79.55 [6000-8000]1
2003 08 - 2013 03
SCSN03_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
[1.50..4.50]1 105.001 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCSN06_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
[4.50..7.50]1 107.001 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCSN09_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 21 days
[7.50..10.50]1 109.001 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCSN12_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 19 days
[10.50..13.50]1 111.001 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCSN15_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 17 days
[13.50..16.50]1 113.001 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCSN18_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 19 days
[16.50..19.50]1 113.501 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCSN21_01D1, South China Sea, N/A
CALTEX SERVICES, PTE. LTD. (Jardine Shipping Agency)
Discrete, Ship
NOAA, Sample every 19 days
[19.50..22.50]1 114.001 20
1991 07 - 1998 10
SCT031_01C3, Beech Island, South Carolina, United States
Savannah River National Laboratory and University of Georgia
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
33.41 -81.83 -9884
2008 08 - 2012 12
SCT061_01C3, Beech Island, South Carolina, United States
Savannah River National Laboratory and University of Georgia
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
33.41 -81.83 115+61
2008 08 - 2012 12
SCT305_01C3, Beech Island, South Carolina, United States
Savannah River National Laboratory and University of Georgia
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
33.41 -81.83 115+305
2008 08 - 2012 12
SEY_01D0, Mahe Island, Seychelles
Seychelles Bureau of Standards
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 9 days
-4.68 55.53 6
1980 01 - 2013 03
SGPDTA_64C0, Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
LBNL, Sample every 1 days
36.61 -97.49 314+60
2003 01 - 2012 12
SGP005_01P2, Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 3 days
36.61 -97.49 [0-1000]1
2006 03 - 2013 03
SGP015_01P2, Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 3 days
36.61 -97.49 [1000-2000]1
2006 03 - 2013 03
SGP025_01P2, Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 4 days
36.61 -97.49 [2000-3000]1
2006 03 - 2013 03
SGP035_01P2, Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 4 days
36.61 -97.49 [3000-4000]1
2006 03 - 2013 03
SGP045_01P2, Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
36.61 -97.49 [4000-5000]1
2006 03 - 2013 03
SHM_01D0, Shemya Island, Alaska, United States
Chugach McKinley
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
52.71 174.13 28
1985 09 - 2013 03
SIS_02D0, Shetland Islands, Scotland
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Sample every 17 days
60.09 -1.25 30
1992 11 - 2003 12
SMO_01D0, Tutuila, American Samoa
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
-14.25 -170.56 60
1973 08 - 2013 03
SMODTA_01C0, Tutuila, American Samoa
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
-14.25 -170.56 60
1981 01 - 2013 03
SMO_04D0, Tutuila, American Samoa
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 12 days
-14.25 -170.56 42
1993 07 - 2012 12
SPLDTA_03C0, Storm Peak Laboratory (Desert Research Institute), United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
40.45 -106.73 3210+9
2005 09 - 2012 12
SPLNTA_03C0, Storm Peak Laboratory (Desert Research Institute), United States
National Center For Atmospheric Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NCAR, Sample every 1 days
40.45 -106.73 3210+9
2005 09 - 2012 12
SPO_01D0, South Pole, Antarctica, United States
National Science Foundation
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
-89.98 -24.80 2821
1975 07 - 2013 01
SPODTA_01C0, South Pole, Antarctica, United States
National Science Foundation
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
-89.98 -24.80 2821
1981 01 - 2013 03
SPO_02D0, South Pole, Antarctica, United States
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
CSIRO, Not Available
-89.98 -24.80 2810
1991 03 - 2012 12
SPO_04D0, South Pole, Antarctica, United States
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
SIO, Sample every 18 days
-89.98 -24.80 2810
1991 11 - 2012 11
STM_01D0, Ocean Station M, Norway
Norway Meteorological Institute
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 4 days
66.00 2.00 5
1981 03 - 2009 11
STP_12D0, Ocean Station P, Canada
Institute of Ocean Sciences
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
IOS, Sample every 4 days
50.00 -145.00 7
1969 05 - 1981 06
STR_01P0, Sutro Tower, San Francisco, California, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Flask Package, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 2 days
37.76 -122.45 486
2007 10 - 2013 03
SUM_01D0, Summit, Greenland
National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
72.60 -38.42 3214
1997 06 - 2013 03
SYO_01D0, Syowa Station, Antarctica, Japan
National Institute of Polar Research
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
-69.00 39.58 3
1986 02 - 2013 01
SYO_09C0, Syowa Station, Antarctica, Japan
National Institute of Polar Research
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
NIPR, Sample every 1 days
-69.00 39.58 0
1984 02 - 2012 12
TAB002_26P2, Tabatinga, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Not Available
-5.95 -70.07 [0-500]1
2010 01 - 2012 07
TAB007_26P2, Tabatinga, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 13 days
-5.95 -70.07 [500-1000]1
2010 01 - 2012 11
TAB012_26P2, Tabatinga, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Not Available
-5.95 -70.07 [1000-1500]1
2010 01 - 2012 11
TAB017_26P2, Tabatinga, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 13 days
-5.95 -70.07 [1500-2000]1
2010 01 - 2012 11
TAB025_26P2, Tabatinga, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 15 days
-5.95 -70.07 [2000-3000]1
2010 01 - 2012 11
TAB037_26P2, Tabatinga, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares
Flask Package, Aircraft
IPEN, Sample every 7 days
-5.95 -70.07 [3000-4500]1
2010 01 - 2012 11
TAP_01D0, Tae-ahn Peninsula, Republic of Korea
Korea-China Centre for Atmospheric Research
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 10 days
36.74 126.13 21
1990 11 - 2013 03
TDF_01D0, Tierra Del Fuego, Ushuaia, Argentina
Servicio Meteorologico Nacional
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 11 days
-54.85 -68.31 32
1994 09 - 2013 03
TGC005_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 15 days
27.73 -96.86 [0-1000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC015_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
27.73 -96.86 [1000-2000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC025_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 15 days
27.73 -96.86 [2000-3000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC035_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
27.73 -96.86 [3000-4000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC045_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 16 days
27.73 -96.86 [4000-5000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC055_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
27.73 -96.86 [5000-6000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC065_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
27.73 -96.86 [6000-7000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
TGC075_01P2, Sinton, Texas, United States
Skypark Aviation
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 18 days
27.73 -96.86 [7000-8000]1
2003 09 - 2013 02
THD005_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [0-1000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
THD015_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [1000-2000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
THD025_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 24 days
41.05 -124.15 [2000-3000]1
2003 12 - 2013 03
THD035_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [3000-4000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
THD045_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [4000-5000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
THD055_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [5000-6000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
THD065_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [6000-7000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
THD075_01P2, Trinidad Head, California, United States
Scientific Aviation, Inc
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Not Available
41.05 -124.15 [7000-8000]1
2003 09 - 2013 03
TRN180_11C3, Trainou, France
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement - UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ
Quasi-continuous, Tower
LSCE, Sample every 2 days
47.96 2.11 131+180
2008 01 - 2011 12
UTA_01D0, Wendover, Utah, United States
U.S. National Weather Service
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
39.90 -113.72 1332
1993 05 - 2013 03
UUM_01D0, Ulaan Uul, Mongolia
Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Institute
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
44.45 111.10 1012
1992 01 - 2013 03
WBI031_01C3, West Branch, Iowa, United States
University of Iowa
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
41.72 -91.35 241+31
2007 07 - 2012 12
WBI099_01C3, West Branch, Iowa, United States
University of Iowa
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
41.72 -91.35 241+99
2007 07 - 2012 12
WBI379_01C3, West Branch, Iowa, United States
University of Iowa
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
41.72 -91.35 241+379
2007 07 - 2012 12
WBI010_01P2, West Branch, Iowa, United States
Haps Air Service, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
41.72 -91.35 [0-2000]1
2004 09 - 2012 09
WBI030_01P2, West Branch, Iowa, United States
Haps Air Service, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 12 days
41.72 -91.35 [2000-4000]1
2004 09 - 2012 09
WBI050_01P2, West Branch, Iowa, United States
Haps Air Service, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
41.72 -91.35 [4000-6000]1
2004 09 - 2012 09
WBI070_01P2, West Branch, Iowa, United States
Haps Air Service, Inc.
Flask Package, Aircraft
NOAA, Sample every 13 days
41.72 -91.35 [6000-8000]1
2004 09 - 2012 09
WGC030_01C3, Walnut Grove, California, United States
DOE Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
38.26 -121.49 0+30
2007 12 - 2012 12
WGC091_01C3, Walnut Grove, California, United States
DOE Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
38.26 -121.49 0+91
2007 09 - 2012 12
WGC483_01C3, Walnut Grove, California, United States
DOE Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
38.26 -121.49 0+483
2007 09 - 2012 12
WIS_01D0, WIS Station, Negev Desert, Israel
Weizmann Institute of Science
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 7 days
30.86 34.78 482
1995 11 - 2013 03
WKT030_01C3, Moody, Texas, United States
Blackland Research and Extension Center-Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
31.31 -97.33 251+30
2001 02 - 2012 12
WKT122_01C3, Moody, Texas, United States
Blackland Research and Extension Center-Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
31.31 -97.33 251+122
2001 02 - 2012 12
WKT457_01C3, Moody, Texas, United States
Blackland Research and Extension Center-Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Quasi-continuous, Tower
NOAA, Sample every 1 days
31.31 -97.33 251+457
2001 02 - 2012 12
WLG_01D0, Mt. Waliguan, Peoples Republic of China
Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) and Qinghai Meteorological Bureau (QMB), China Meteorological Administration (CMA)
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
36.29 100.90 3815
1990 08 - 2013 03
WLG_33C0, Mt. Waliguan, Peoples Republic of China
Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
CMA, Sample every 1 days
36.29 100.90 3810+80
1994 11 - 2012 12
WSADTA_06C0, Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada
Environment Canada
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
EC, Sample every 1 days
43.93 -60.02 5+25
1992 08 - 2013 03
YON_19C0, Yonagunijima, Japan
Japan Meteorological Agency
Quasi-continuous, Single Fixed Position
JMA, Sample every 1 days
24.47 123.02 30
1997 01 - 2012 12
ZEP_01D0, Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway and Sweden
Zeppelin Station/University of Stockholm Meteorological Institute
Discrete, Single Fixed Position
NOAA, Sample every 8 days
78.91 11.89 479
1994 02 - 2013 03
1Samples are collected within the range specified.

Version History

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2013

  1. Release Date: 23 December 2013
  2. Important changes to GLOBALVIEW-CO2
    The ObsPack Fair Use statement has been modified. Beginning November 2013, all new ObsPack data products will have a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registered with the International DOI Foundation. In addition to the conditions of the ObsPack Fair Use statement, users must also include the ObsPack product citation in any publication or presentation using the product. The required citation is included in every data product and in the automated e-mail sent to the user during product download. Also beginning November 2013, there are no longer any exceptions to this policy; it applies to all ObsPack products including GLOBALVIEW. The DOI serves two purposes. First, it better documents the specific data product used in published work, and second, it improves our ability to track product usage.
  3. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • CPT Cape Point, South Africa (NOAA)
    Discrete aircraft measurements:
    • ALF Alta Floresta, Brazil (IPEN)
    • RBO Rio Branco, Brazil (IPEN)
    • TAB Tabatinga, Brazil (IPEN)
    Continuous surface or single-level tower measurements:
    • BCKDTA Afternoon average values from Behchoko, Northwest Territories, Canada (EC)
    • JFJNTA Nighttime average values from Jungfraujoch, Switzerland operated by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)
  4. Lab Clarification
    The lab abbrevation NOAA is equivalent to and replaces the abbreviation ESRL. Both refer to the NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division, Carbon Cycle Group.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2012

  1. Release Date: 3 January 2013
  2. Important changes to GLOBALVIEW-CO2
    The content, packaging, and distribution of GLOBALVIEW-CO2 have changed. These changes are driven by current needs of our data providers and product users and will likely require you to make some code changes. We apologize in advance for any inconvenience and ask for your patience during this transition.

    Content:

    The GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product now includes one file per data record. Each file includes the extended record, suggested relative weights, the reference marine boundary layer timeseries at the latitude of the sampling location, and considerably more metadata than in previous updates. The Reference Marine Boundary Layer matrix, which was provided in previous releases, is no longer available. Instead, NOAA has made a more comprehensive MBL reference product available here. Statistical summaries of key features in measurement records are no longer included.

    Packaging:

    The product is now distributed using the Observation Package (ObsPack) framework. The ObsPack framework supports both ASCII text and netCDF4 file formats. The ASCII text files have similar content to previous extended record (ext) files. The netCDF files have the same content as text files but also include additional date/time representations. The extended record file names have changed from previous updates. Please visit the ObsPack web site for additional information.

    Distribution:

    GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2012 data product is available for download from the ObsPack web site. The product may be downloaded as a single package only. At this time, citation of the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product is unchanged from previous years. Please see Citation for details.
  3. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • FIK Finokalia, Crete, Greece (LSCE)
    • LPO Ile Grande, France (LSCE)
    Continuous surface or single-level tower measurements:
    • BRADTA Afternoon average values from Bratt, Canada (EC)
    • ESTDTA Afternoon average values from Esther, Alberta, Canada (EC)
    • HEIDTA Afternoon average values from Heidelberg, Germany operated by the University of Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik (UHEI-IUP)
    • JFJNTA Nighttime average values from Jungfraujoch, Switzerland operated by the University of Bern (KUP)
    • LUTDTA Afternoon average values from Lutjewad, the Netherlands operated by the University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research (RUG)
    • RBADTA Afternoon average values from Roof Butte, Arizona, United States (NCAR)
    • RBANTA Nighttime average values from Roof Butte, Arizona, United States (NCAR)
    • SGPDTA Afternoon average values from Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States operated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
    • TRN180 Afternoon average values from Trainou, France (intake height: 180 magl) (LSCE)
  4. Site Classification Change
    All surface in situ records now include in the GLOBALVIEW file name either a 1) DTA tag or a NTA tag if daily values are derived from either daytime (afternoon) measurements or nighttime measurements. If neither tag is included then all available baseline measurements are used to derive daily values. As an exception, all multi-level tower sites (e.g., LEF, BAO, HUN) use afternoon hours to derive the daily value but DO NOT include DTA in the GLOBALVIEW file name. In these cases, the sample intake height (in magl) is included in the file name.
  5. Site Code Change
    The 3-letter site identification code for Darwin (Charles Point)/Jabirus, Northern Territory, Australia (DAA) operated by CSIRO was changed to CPA to be consistent with the WMO GAWSIS. The 3-letter site identification code for flight data between Tokyo and Syndey (WPO) operated jointly by NIES and MRI as part of the CONTRAIL project was changed to CON.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2011

  1. Release Date: 16 September 2011
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • CIB Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera, Spain (ESRL in collaboration with Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera, Univ. of Valladolid (CIBA))
    • DRP Drake Passage (ESRL in collaboration with the National Science Foundation (NSF))
    • MEX Mex High Altitude Global Climate Observation Center, Mexico (ESRL in collaboration with Sistema Internacional de Monitoreo Ambiental (SIMA))
    • OXK Ochsenkopf, Germany (ESRL in collaboration with Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC))
    Continuous surface or short-tower measurements:
    • ESP045 Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada (EC)
  3. Site Classification Change
    Discrete data from Estevan Point are no longer included in constructing the marine boundary layer (MBL) reference matrix. Quasi-continuous measurements from the site show a small diurnal cycle. Discrete samples are not always collected at a time when air is predominantly marine in origin.

    All EC quasi-continuous measurement records are now designated as continuous surface sites (_06C0) instead of continuous tower sites (_06C3). The "tower" designation is reserved for records where GLOBALVIEW results from multiple levels on the tower are presented (e.g., hun, lef, wkt).

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2010

  1. Release Date: 26 November 2010
  2. Web Site
    In response to user-feedback, we have re-organized the GLOBALVIEW web site to improve readability and access. We have added a Documentation Section, which presents the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 web content in a single web page. For convenience, we also provide the documentation as a PDF file.
  3. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • ABP Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil (Instituto de Pesquisas Energécas e Nucleares, Il Centro de Quíca e Meio Ambiente, Divisao de Quimica Ambiental (IPEN-CQMA))
    • ABP Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil (ESRL in collaboration with Instituto de Pesquisas Energécas e Nucleares, Il Centro de Quíca e Meio Ambiente, Divisao de Quimica Ambiental (IPEN-CQMA))
    Discrete measurements from aircraft:
    • CMA Cape May, New Jersey, United States (ESRL)
    • ETL East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada (ESRL)
    • SCA Charleston, South Carolina, United States (ESRL)
    • SGP Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States (ESRL)
    Continuous surface or short-tower measurements:
    • STR Sutro, San Francisco, California, United States (ESRL)
      Please Note: Data have been filtered using a statistical method to remove local influences. This methodology is preliminary pending further analysis.
    Continuous measurements from a tall tower:
    • SCT Augusta Tower, Beech Island, South Carolina, United States (ESRL)
    • WBI030 West Branch, Iowa, United States (ESRL in collaboration with University of Iowa). Data from the 30 magl intake height.
  4. Tower Measurement Programs (Important Changes)
    • In May 2009, sampling at the 11, 76 and 244 magl intake heights at the Park Falls, Wisconsin (LEF) tower was discontinued. Measurements at the 30, 122 and 396 m heights continue. The extended records for each level span the period of available measurements. We present two sets of statistical summaries. One set spans the period 2004-2008 when all 6 levels were in use (LEF<ht>-6lvls_01C3_<qualifier>.co2); a second set spans the period 2004-2009 when the 30, 122 and 396 m levels were available (LEF<ht>_01C3_<qualifier>.co2).
    • The Moody, Texas (WKT) quasi-continuous tower record used in this release includes measurements for the period 2007 through 2009 for the 30, 122 and 457 magl levels. Data prior to 2007 require further evaluation due to known problems.
    • In June 2009, the sampling intake height at the Lac Labiche, Alberta, Canada site (LLB) operated by EC was changed from 10 to 45 magl.
    • In March 2009, the sampling intake height at the Egbert, Ontario, Canada site (EGB) operated by EC was changed from 3 to 25 magl.
  5. Presentation of Tower Measurements
    • To improve the usefulness of the diurnal statistical summaries, results are now presented in site Local Time (LST). See Content Description for details.
    • We now provide a statistical summary of differences between nighttime and daytime averages at each intake height. For each day and at each level, we compute differences between a 4-hour nighttime average [0-4 LST] and an afternoon-hours daytime average [see Data Comparability, Table 1 for details]. We aggregate the daily differences by month and present a multi-year monthly summary. See Content Description for details.
    • For tower sites with multiple intake heights, we provide a statistical summary of the daytime and nighttime vertical gradients. The daytime vertical gradient is computed as follows. For each day, we compute an afternoon-hours daytime average [see Data Comparability, Table 1 for details] for each level. We difference the day average at each level with the day average at the highest level. If a day value is missing for any intake height, the gradient is not determined for that day. We aggregate the daily daytime vertical gradients by month and present a multi-year monthly summary. The nighttime vertical gradient is computed in the same way but using hours 0-4 LST. See Content Description for details.
  6. Header Content
    The header content within each product file (except for the reference MBL matrix) has been changed. We have added "Time Period", which describes the date range represented within the file. This addition increases the number of lines in the header to 19. All header lines now begin with the '#' character.
  7. Site Code Change
    The 3-letter site identification code for Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada (FRD) operated by EC was changed to FSD to be consistent with the WMO GAWSIS.
    The 3-letter site identification code for Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada (SBL) operated by EC was changed to WSA to be consistent with the WMO GAWSIS.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2009b

  1. Revision Date: 29 October 2009
    This revision corrects errors in the computation of daily averages from the 6 quasi-continuous surface and tower records added in the 15 October 2009 release (see notes below).

    • The 3-hour averaging window used to compute daily values from the quasi-continuous data at the BAO, WBI and WGC tall towers was not consistent with the window used for other ESRL tall tower records. This revision uses daily values computed using the same 3-hour window (13-15 LST) for all ESRL tower sites.
    • The 3-hour averaging window used to compute daily values from the quasi-continuous data at the ETL105 and LLB010 towers was not consistent with the window used for other EC tower records. This revision uses daily values computed using the same 3-hour window (15-17 LST) for all EC tower sites.
    • Daily values for EGB (Egbert, Ontario, Canada) were computed using all valid hourly values. This revision uses daily values computed using valid afternoon hours (15-17 LST) only.

    These corrections only impact GLOBALVIEW files for the recently added quasi-continuous surface and tower sites (EGB, ETL105, LLB010, BAO, WBI and WGC) described in the 15 October 2009 release notes below. Table 1 (Sampling Locations) summarizes how daily values are computed.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2009a
  1. Release Date: 15 October 2009
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • BHD Baring Head, New Zealand (ESRL in collaboration with National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA))
    • LMP Lampedusa, Italy (ESRL in collaboration with National Agency for New Technology, Energy, and Environment (ENEA))
    Continuous surface or short-tower measurements:
    • EGB Egbert, Ontario, Canada (EC)
    • ETL105 East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada (EC)
    • LLB010 Lac La Biche, Alberta, Canada (EC)
    Continuous measurements from a tall tower:
    • BAO Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, Colorado, United States (ESRL)
    • WBI West Branch, Iowa, United States (ESRL in collaboration with University of Iowa)
    • WGC Walnut Grove, California, United States (ESRL in collaboration with DOE Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
  3. Sampling Strategy
    We have introduced the sampling strategy "P" to make a distinction between single flasks (D) and flask packages. See File Names for details.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2008

  1. Release Date: 27 August 2008
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • HPB Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (ESRL)
    • SGP374 Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, United States (ESRL)
    Continuous surface measurements:
    • HDPDTA Hidden Peak, Colorado, United States (NCAR) (Daytime Averages, 1200-1800 LST)
    • HDPNTA Hidden Peak, Colorado, United States (NCAR) (Nighttime Averages, 0000-0400 LST)
    • NWRDTA Niwot Ridge, Colorado, United States (NCAR) (Daytime Averages, 1200-1800 LST)
    • NWRNTA Niwot Ridge, Colorado, United States (NCAR) (Nighttime Averages, 0000-0400 LST)
    • SPLDTA Storm Peak, Colorado, United States (NCAR) (Daytime Averages using 1200-1800 LST)
    • SPLNTA Storm Peak, Colorado, United States (NCAR) (Nighttime Averages using 0000-0400 LST)
  3. Site Code Change
    In January 2007, the ESRL aircraft site at Rowley, Iowa, United States (RIA) was moved to West Branch, Iowa (WBI). Data from RIA are now merged with data from WBI.
  4. Lab Change
    • Collaborating laboratory 06, formerly called "Meteorological Service of Canada" (MSC), is now called "Environment Canada" (EC).
    • Collaborating laboratory 27, formerly called "Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia" (INM), is now called "Meteorological State Agency of Spain" (AEMET).

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2007

  1. Release Date: 20 August 2007
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • CYA Casey, Antarctica, Australia (CSIRO)
    • PTA Point Arena, California, United States (ESRL)
    Discrete measurements from aircraft:
    • BNE Beaver Crossing, Nebraska, United States (ESRL)
    • DND Dahlen, North Dakota, United States (ESRL)
    • HIL Homer, Illinois, United States (ESRL)
    • LEF Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States (ESRL)
    • RIA Rowley, Iowa, United States (ESRL)
    • THD Trinidad Head, California, United States (ESRL)
    Continuous measurements from a tall tower:
    • AMT Argyle, Maine, United States (ESRL)
  3. Sampling at Izana Observatory (IZO)
    Please note that daily averages from Izana Observatory contributed by the Observatorio Atmosferico de Izana, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INM), Spain are computed using only nighttime hours, i.e., 20-23 (previous day) and 00-07 (reported day) to assure free troposphere background conditions at this high altitude mountain site. Prior to 2002, NOAA discrete samples were typically collected between 20 and 23 hours. Since June 2002, the collection time of NOAA samples has changed to afternoon hours (15-16). NOAA samples collected in the afternoon are not directly comparable to the INM daily averages computed using only nighttime hours.
  4. Site Code Change
    The Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan, Canada site (OBS) operated by MSC was renamed Candle Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada (CDL).
  5. Aircraft Sampling in the Western Pacific (WPO)
    The long-term aircraft sampling program over the Western Pacific is now managed by the Center for Global Environmental Research National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in collaboration with the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan. Please note that the standard gas scale used to report 1993-2005 data is different from the scale used to report the 2006 data due to the change in the central analytical laboratory from MRI to NIES. The difference of the CO2 standard gas scale is estimated to be about -0.14 ppm (MRI minus NIES) around 380 ppm CO2 level and +0.10 ppm around 340 ppm. A consistent data set will be made available after a more careful evaluation of the standard gas scale between the two laboratories.
  6. Data deletions from GLOBALVIEW-CO2
    The ESRL discrete measurements from Park Falls, Wisconsin (LEF) and Grifton, North Carolina (ITN) are no longer included in the GLOBALVIEW product. These sites are instead represented by the ESRL tall tower quasi-continuous measurements, which provide a more representative record of observed high-frequency variability and daily patterns.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2006

  1. Release Date: 31 August 2006
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • BKT Bukit Kototagang, Indonesia (ESRL)
    • MKN Mt. Kenya, Kenya (ESRL)
    • PAL Pallas, Finland (ESRL)
    Discrete measurements from aircraft:
    • TGC Sinton, Texas, United States (ESRL)
    • NHA Worcester, Massachusetts, United States (ESRL)
  3. Lab Name Change
    As of October 1, 2005, the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) has merged into the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of its Global Monitoring Division (GMD).

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2005

  1. Release Date: 15 August 2006
  2. Data additions
    Discrete measurements from aircraft:
    • ESP Estevan Point, British Columbia, Canada (ESRL)
    • HFM Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States (ESRL)
    • ZOT Zotino, Siberia, Russia (MPI-BGC)
    Continuous surface measurements:
    • SBL Sable Island, Canada (MSC)
    Continuous measurements from a short tower:
    • OBS023 Saskatchewan, Canada (MSC)
  3. Lab Identification Number Change
    The Lab ID number for NOAA ESRL has been changed from 00 to 01.
  4. Site Classification Change
    The Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada (FRD) site has been re-classified within GLOBALVIEW as a tower site. It is now referred to as FRD040 indicating the sample intake height is 40m above the surface.
  5. Modifications to the Preparation and Use of Tower Data
    Preparation of semi-continuous measurements from sites designated as tower platforms has been modified in an effort to standardize the treatment of data from towers sampling at one or many levels.

    Tower data are now averaged with daily resolution using afternoon hours only. In earlier releases of this data product, daily averages were computed using all hours (e.g., 24-hour average).

    The residual distribution used to prepare the statistical summary of average diurnal cycles is now determined at each level by subtracting the afternoon-hour average mixing ratio for each day from every observation for that day. In earlier releases of this product, the residual distribution was determined at each level by subtracting the 24-hour average mixing ratio for each day from every observation for that day; for tall tower measurements, the 24-hour average was determined from measurements at the highest level.

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2004

  1. Release Date: 15 August 2004
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • PDM Pic Du Midi, France (LSCE)

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2003

  1. Release Date: 15 August 2003
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • BGU Begur, Spain (LSCE)
    • SUM Summit, Greenland (ESRL)
    Continuous surface measurements:
    • FRDRBC Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada (Restricted Baseline Condition, MSC)
    • PALCBC Pallas, Finland (Continental Baseline Condition, FMI)
    • PALMBC Pallas, Finland (Marine Baseline Condition, FMI)
    Continuous measurements from a tall tower:
    • WKT Moody, Texas, United States (ESRL)

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2002

  1. Release Date: 15 August 2002
  2. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • BGU Begur, Spain (LSCE)
    • SUM Summit, Greenland (ESRL)
  3. Change to the release policy
    Participants of the Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project-CO2 agreed to change the current release policy of the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product. A single ?complete? version of the data product will now be freely available to everyone [Toru et al., In Preparation].
  4. Site Code Change
    The Kosan, Republic of Korea (KSN) site was renamed Gosan, Republic of Korea (GSN).
  5. Summary of Sample Collection Times
    This update includes a summary of sample collection times for discrete measurement records (See SUMMARY - SAMPLE COLLECTION TIMES for details).
  6. Data additions
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • ALT Alert, Nunavut, Canada (SIO)
    • CBA Cold Bay, Alaska, United States (SIO)
    • CGO Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia (SIO)
    • KUM Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii, United States (SIO)
    • LJO La Jolla, California, United States (SIO)
    • PSA Palmer Station, Antarctica, United States (SIO)
    • SBL Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada (MSC)
    • SMO American Samoa (SIO)
    • SPO South Pole, Antarctica, United States (SIO)
    • TRM Tromelin Island, France (LSCE)
    Discrete measurements from aircraft:
    • WPO Western Pacific Ocean (MRI)
    • RTA Rarotonga, Rarotonga (ESRL)

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2001

  1. Release Date: 15 August 2001
  2. Data additions
    Continuous surface measurements:
    • COI Cape Ochi-ishi, Japan (NIES)
    • HAT Hateruma Island, Japan (NIES)
    • CPT Cape Point, South Africa (SAWS)
    Discrete surface measurements:
    • KZD Sary Taukum, Kazakstan (ESRL)
    • KZM Plateau Assy, Kazakstan (ESRL)
    • TDF Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina (ESRL)
    Discrete measurements from aircraft:
    • HAA Molokai Island, Hawaii, United States (ESRL)
    • PFA Poker Flat, Alaska, United States (ESRL)

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2000

  1. Release Date: 15 August 2000
  2. Modifications to the Data Extension procedure

    The data extension approach used to prepare the GLOBALVIEW product extends measurement time series by filling periods of missing data for a specific site with values based on knowledge gained from measurements at the site itself and from measurements from marine boundary layer (MBL) sites at comparable latitude. This "latitude reference" method has been improved upon over that described in Masarie and Tans, [1995] (hereafter MT95).

    In GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 1999 we improved the technique used to construct reference MBL time series to reduce their sensitivity to changes in the distribution of sites and to minimize discontinuities in these reference curves resulting from periods of sporadic or interrupted sampling with existing MBL records. In GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2000, we have made a minor change to the construction of the difference climatology to minimize discontinuities between smooth values and interpolated and extrapolated values.

    Summary of the difference climatology described by MT95

    Data were prepared by fitting a function, f(t) [Equation 1 in MT95 consisting of harmonics and a polynomial] to each measurement record. The residuals from this fit are smoothed to capture interannual variations in the seasonal cycle. These variations are added to f(t) to produce a smooth curve, SSTA(t) [Equation 2, MT95], which is our best fit representation of the data The reference MBL time series, MBLSTA(t), is constructed for the latitude of each sampling location using the methods described by MT95 and modified according to A.1999.2 (see below). The difference distribution, ΔSTA,REF(t)=SSTA(t)-MBLSTA(t), highlights features that distinguish the individual record from the reference. A difference climatology was then described by fitting a function, δSTA,REF(t) [Equation 9, MT95] to ΔSTA,REF(t). This difference climatology describes the average difference between the smooth curve, SSTA(t), and the reference MBLSTA(t). To account for interannual variability in the difference distribution, ΔSTA,REF(t), we digitally filter the residuals, ΔSTA,REF(t)-δSTA,REF(t) using a low-pass filter with FWHM of 40 days. The smoothed residuals are then combined with the difference climatology according to Equation 10, MT95 to produce a smoothed difference climatology, SSTA,REF(t).

    Data extension relies on the assumption that the difference climatology described by δSTA,REF(t) is valid for periods when there are no actual measurements. Limitations of the assumption are discussed in Sections 4 and 5 of MT95. Finally, the extended record is constructed using SSTA(t) where measurements exist and by combining MBLSTA(t) and the difference climatology where measurements do not exist. Specifically, interpolated values are constructed by combining the MBL reference, MBLSTA(t), with the smoothed difference climatology, SSTA,REF(t). Extrapolated values are constructed by combining the MBL reference, MBLSTA(t), with the difference climatology, δSTA,REF(t).

    Modifications to the use of the difference climatology

    The difference climatology, δSTA,REF(t), is computed from the difference distribution, ΔSTA,REF(t), as described by MT95 and summarized above. The method described by MT95 to construct extrapolated values, however, had a tendency to introduce discontinuities at the transition between smoothed values, S(t), and extrapolated values (Figure 1b). These discontinuities arise when extrapolated values based on average behavior join values derived from observations, which do not reflect average behavior. The largest discontinuities occur when the seasonal pattern of actual data at a transition deviates significantly from the long-term average seasonal cycle (Figure 1a). To minimize discontinuities at the boundary between extrapolated values and smooth values, we smooth the transitions between the difference climatology, δSTA,REF(t), and the difference distribution, ΔSTA,REF(t). This is accomplished by defining a relaxation period (RELAX=8 weeks) whereby we force the difference climatology to "relax" linearly from its value RELAX weeks away to the first value from the difference distribution following a gap or to the last value from a difference distribution before a gap in the actual data begins.

    Extrapolated values are required to "fill" external gaps in the observations that occur when a data record begins or ends within the data extension synchronization period. For example, since the ESRL [lab# 01] flask sampling effort on container ships in the Pacific Ocean (POC) began in 1987 and the synchronization period for GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2000 is 1979 through 1999, there exists an external gap at the beginning of the POC extended record. The transition between δPOCN30,REF(ti) and ΔPOCN30,REF(ti) where ti is the weekly time step corresponding to the first actual observation in the POCN30 record is smoothed using the following strategy. Values from δPOCN30,REF(t) are used (as in MT95) for time steps before ti-RELAX. Between the time steps ti-RELAX and ti, we use values from linear interpolation between δPOCN30,REF(ti-RELAX) and ΔPOCN30,REF(ti). Figure 1c illustrates this technique.

    The method to construct interpolated values (described by MT95) did not introduce discontinuities at transitions. By using the smoothed difference climatology, SSTA,REF(t), continuity was imposed at the transition between SSTA,REF(t) and ΔSTA,REF(t) by the curve fitting methods as described by Thoning et al. [1989]. A more defensible approach for the extension of data records is to use only the difference climatology, δSTA,REF(t), which describes the average difference between all actual observations and the MBL reference. Thus, we now apply the smoothing strategy described above to the construction of interpolated values.

    Data Extension Mod Figure

    Figure 1. (a) Portion of the POCN30 difference climatology (squares) derived using the method described by MT95. (b) POCN30 extended record derived from (a). (c) Portion of POCN30 difference climatology derived using the modified method described in the text. (d) POCN30 extended record derived from (b) showing minimal discontinuity at the transition between extrapolated values (squares) and smoothed values (circles).

    Interpolated values are required to "fill" internal gaps in a data record that occur when an interruption in the observations exceeds 8 weeks (as described in MT95). There are two cases to consider, which again, can be best illustrated using the ESRL POCN30 record. First, there are internal gaps in the POCN30 record that exceed 8 weeks but are less than 2 * RELAX weeks (e.g., 1987). In these cases, we linear interpolate between ΔPOCN30,REF(ti) and ΔPOCN30,REF(tii) where ti corresponds to the weekly time step before the gap in the record begins and tii is the weekly time step when the observations restart. Second, there are internal gaps exceeding 2 * RELAX weeks in length (e.g., 1988). In these cases, we linear interpolate between ΔPOCN30,REF(ti) and δPOCN30,REF(ti+RELAX) and δPOCN30,REF(tii-RELAX) and ΔPOCN30,REF(tii). Between δPOCN30,REF(ti+RELAX) and δPOCN30,REF(tii-RELAX), we use the values δPOCN30,REF(ti+RELAX : tii-RELAX). Figure 1c illustrates each of these cases.

    Discontinuities in extended records caused by jumps at transitions between the difference climatology and the difference distribution are artifacts of the data extension method and do not reflect instantaneous sources and sinks of carbon. It is reasonable then to minimize these discontinuities since models "inverting" GLOBALVIEW-CO2 will be required to interpret these jumps. To smooth these discontinuities, we assume that the transition to the actual difference distribution will be gradual and not instantaneous. Because we cannot justify using one model over another, we have chosen linear interpolation.

    By smoothing the transition between the difference climatology and the difference distribution at external and internal gaps, we have minimized discontinuities caused by the non-average behavior of actual observations (Figure 1d). This improvement is apparent in the extended records included in this data product. These modifications, however, still cannot overcome certain discontinuities in the extended records caused by limitations in the observational network itself (see Release Notes for GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 1999).

GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 1999

  1. Release Date: 15 August 1999
  2. Modifications to the Data Extension procedure

    The data extension approach used to prepare the GLOBALVIEW product extends measurement time series by filling periods of missing data for a specific site with values based on knowledge gained from measurements at the site itself and from measurements from marine boundary layer (MBL) sites at comparable latitude. This "latitude reference" method has been improved upon over that described in Masarie and Tans, [1995] (hereafter MT95). Specifically, the technique used to construct reference MBL time series has been modified to reduce their sensitivity to changes in the distribution of sites and to minimize discontinuities in these reference curves resulting from periods of sporadic or interrupted sampling within existing MBL records.

    Summary of latitude reference method described by MT95

    Data were prepared by fitting a function, f(t) [Equation 1 in MT95 consisting of harmonics and a polynomial] to each measurement record. The residuals from this fit are smoothed to capture interannual variations in the seasonal cycle. These variations are added to f(t) to produce a smooth curve, S(t) [Equation 2, MT95], which is our best fit representation of the data The residuals are also smoothed to capture variations in the long-term trend only and these are added to the polynomial terms of f(t) to give the deseasonalized long-term trend, T(t) [Equation 3, MT95]. A detrended seasonal cycle is computed as S(t)-T(t), and the average seasonal cycle, H(t), is represented by the harmonic components of f(t) [see Equation 1].

    A single measurement record extended using the latitude reference method (as described in Section 4.2, MT95) utilized the record itself as well as information gleaned from additional measurements available from the observational network. Fundamental to this approach is the difference climatology that characterizes the uniqueness of a site record relative to a MBL reference calculated at the site's latitude. Differences between the smooth curve, SSTA(t), and the MBL reference, MBLSTA(t) are calculated (Equation 8, MT95). This distribution, ΔSTA,REF(t), highlights features in the site record that are not represented by the MBL reference. A curve [Equation 9, MT95] is then fitted to this distribution to characterize the average offset and average seasonal cycle of ΔSTA,REF(t) and represents the difference climatology for the site. We then assume the difference climatology is valid for periods where there are no measurements; limitations of this assumption are discussed in Sections 4 and 5 of MT95. Finally, the extended record is constructed using SSTA(t) where measurements exist and by combining MBLSTA(t) and the difference climatology where measurements do not exist.

    Modifications to the derivation of the MBL reference

    Reference MBL time series continue to be constructed using observations from active MBL sampling sites during the synchronization period (fixed span of time into which measurement records will be extended, e.g., 1979-1998). The method described in MT95, however, had a tendency to introduce discontinuities into the derived reference time series that were due to changes in the distribution of MBL measurements. For example, during construction of reference MBL time series, each MBL measurement record contributed its smooth values, S(t), everywhere measurements existed; no values from the site were contributed if an interruption in the observations exceeded 8 weeks. Further, the smooth curve was not defined before sampling at a location begins or after it ends. Thus, during construction of reference MBL time series, values from the smooth curves from MBL sites would abruptly appear, disappear, and reappear depending on the continuity and distribution of actual MBL measurements. This was particularly a problem in the equatorial and southern tropical regions where sampling is already sparse. In these regions, site additions, deletions, or gaps in the few existing MBL records had considerable impact on the reference MBL time series and added noise to existing variability due to changes in carbon exchange and atmospheric circulation.

    Modifications to the latitude reference procedure minimize the affects of a changing observational network on the derived reference MBL time series. This is accomplished in two ways. First, instead of using the smooth curve, S(t), from MBL measurement records as described by MT95, we use the long-term trend, T(t), the detrended seasonal cycle, S(t)-T(t), and the average seasonal cycle, H(t) derived from each MBL measurement record. Because the trend curve is, by definition, less sensitive than the smooth curve to short-term interruptions, we utilize interpolated values from the trend curve during problematic sampling periods. The seasonal component of the measurement record is represented by the detrended seasonal cycle where there are measurements and by the average seasonal cycle where there are short-term interruptions in the record. By using average seasonal cycle patterns, interruptions or periods of infrequent sampling in a MBL record where the seasonal cycle may be poorly defined or entirely missing have minimal impact on the derived MBL reference. Second, instead of using weights (which depend on sampling density and measurement variability) with annual resolution as described, we now use a single weight at each site that is determined using the entire measurement record. This eliminates variability in the MBL reference that arises when assigned weights may change abruptly from one year to the next, again, due to changes in the observational network. Considered together, these modifications to the latitude reference procedure ensure that once measurements at a MBL location commence, they contribute uninterrupted to the construction of the reference MBL time series until sampling is discontinued. This point is clarified in the description that follows.

    First, weekly latitudinal distributions (mixing ratio versus latitude) of values extracted from the long-term trends, T(t), at MBL sites are compiled. A weighted curve as described by Tans et al. [1989] is then fitted to each weekly distribution to approximate the meridional distribution of trends. At each time step, values are extracted from the curve at intervals of 0.05 sine of latitude from 90°S to 90°N producing a matrix (T(t,l)) of trends as a function of time and latitude.

    Second, using the same MBL sites, weekly latitudinal distributions of values extracted from the detrended seasonal cycle where measurements exist and from the average seasonal cycle where there are interruptions in the data record are compiled. A weighted curve is then fitted to each weekly distribution to approximate the meridional distribution of seasonal cycle patterns. At each time step, values are extracted from the curve at intervals of 0.05 sine latitude from 90°S to 90°N producing a matrix [S(t,l)-T(t,l); H(t,l)] of detrended seasonal cycle patterns as a function of time and latitude.

    Third, we construct the MBL matrix REF(t,l) = T(t,l) + {S(t,l)-T(t,l); H(t,l)}. This matrix contains derived model fits to the latitude distribution of long-term trends and detrended average or actual seasonal cycles from all MBL sites at each time step and latitude interval.

    Finally, a reference MBL time series can be extracted from the MBL matrix at any latitude using linear interpolation. For example, as described in Section 4.2 of MT95, a reference MBL time series is constructed at Cape Grim (CGO), REFCGO(t), by extracting, at each time step, a mixing ratio from the MBL matrix at the sine (latitude) of CGO. The MBL reference at CGO is most influenced by CGO itself (because it is designated as a MBL site) during the period of measurements, by MBL sites nearby in latitude to CGO, and to a lesser extent by all other MBL values used in the curve fits. The MBL reference at CGO is included in the CGO extension file. Reference MBL time series are included in data extension files for all MBL and non-MBL sampling locations. The reference MBL matrix is also included in this GLOBALVIEW product (See REFERENCE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER MATRIX for details).

    The reference MBL time series constructed using this technique are considerably smoother and more stable than those generated using the original technique. This new technique, however, still cannot overcome certain limitations in the observational network itself. For example, in late-1990, the NOAA sampling at AMS (38°S) was terminated. NOAA sample collection began at CRZ (46°S) in early-1991 as a replacement to the AMS location. The 4-month gap in MBL measurements in this latitude region, however, results in a discontinuous period of low CO2 values in the reference MBL time series at CGO (41°S) that is bracketed in latitude by CRZ to the south and AMS to the north. This discontinuity in the MBL reference at the latitude of CGO is substantially attenuated in GLOBALVIEW-CO2 where continuous measurements at AMS [1980-1997] contributed by the LSCE laboratory in France provide the continuity that was lacking in the NOAA sampling network.


Download

  • From the web

    The current GLOBALVIEW data product is called obspack_co2_1_GLOBALVIEW-CO2_2013_v1.0.4_2013-12-23.


References

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Instituto de Pesquisas Energés e Nucleares, Il Centro de Quí e Meio Ambiente, Divisao de Q Quimica Ambiental (IPEN-CQMA) ), Brazil

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Environment Canada (EC), Canada

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Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) / Centre for Atmosphere Watch & Services (CAWAS), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), P.R. of China

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Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) and Unitéixte de Recherche CEA-CNRS, France

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University of Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik (UHEI-IUP), Germany

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Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Japan

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National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan

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University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research [RUG], Netherlands

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South African Weather Service (SAWS), South Africa

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Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Spain

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University of Bern, Physics Institute, Climate and Environmental Physics [KUP], Switzerland

  • Uglietti, C., M. Leuenberger, D. Brunner, European source and sink areas of CO2 retrieved from Lagrangian transport model interpretation of combined O2 and CO2 measurements at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8017-8036, 2011

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), United States

  • Stephens, B., A. Watt, and G. Maclean, An autonomous inexpensive robust CO2 analyzer (AIRCOA). 13th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracers Measurement Techniques, WMO TD 1359, 95-99, 2006.

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - Flask measurements

  • Conway, T.J., P.P. Tans, L.S. Waterman, K.W. Thoning, D.R. Kitzis, K.A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/GMD global air sampling network, J. Geophys. Res.,99,22831 22855, 1994.
  • Conway, T.J., P. Tans, L.S. Waterman, K.W. Thoning, K.A. Masarie, and R.H. Gammon, Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements in the remote global troposphere, 1981 1984, Tellus, 40B, 81 115, 1988.
  • Komhyr, W.D., L.S. Waterman, and W.R. Taylor, Semiautomatic nondispersive infrared analyzer apparatus for CO2 air sample analyses, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1315 1322, 1983.
  • Komhyr, W.D., R.H. Gammon, T.B. Harris, L.S. Waterman, T.J. Conway, W.R. Taylor, and K.W. Thoning, Global atmospheric CO2 distribution and variations from 1968 1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5567 5596, 1985.
  • Tans, P.P., T.J. Conway, and T. Nakazawa, Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide from surface observations and an atmospheric transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5151 5172, 1989a.
  • Tans, P.P, K.W. Thoning, W.P. Elliott, and T.J. Conway, Background atmospheric CO2 patterns from weekly flask samples at Barrow, Alaska: Optimal signal recovery and error estimates, in NOAA Tech. Memo. (ERL ARL 173). Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, CO, 131 pp, 1989b.
  • Tans, P.P., I.Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget, Science, 247, 1431 1438, 1990.
  • Thoning, K.W., P. Tans, T.J. Conway, and L.S. Waterman, NOAA/GMCC calibrations of CO2 in air reference gases: 1979 1985. NOAA Tech. Memo. (ERL ARL 150). Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, CO, 63 pp, 1987.

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - In situ measurements

  • Peterson, J.T., W.D. Komhyr, L.S. Waterman, R.H. Gammon, K.W. Thoning, and T.J. Conway, Atmospheric CO2 variations at Barrow, Alaska, 1973 1982, J. Atmos. Chem., 4, 491 510, 1986.
  • Herbert, G.A., E.R. Green, J.M. Harris, G.L. Koenig, S.J. Roughton, and K.W. Thaut, Control and monitoring instrumentation for the continuous measurement of atmospheric CO2 and meteorological variables, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3, 414 421, 1986.
  • Gillette, D.A., W.D. Komhyr, L.S. Waterman, L.P. Steele, and R.H. Gammon, The NOAA/GMCC continuous CO2 record at the South Pole, 1975 1982, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4231 4240, 1987.
  • Halter, B.C., Harris, J.M., and Conway, T.J., Component signals in the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at American Samoa, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 15914 15918, 1988.
  • Komhyr, W.D., T.B. Harris, L.S. Waterman, J.F.S. Chin, and K.W. Thoning, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory: 1. NOAA Global Monitoring for Climatic Change measurements with a nondispersive infrared analyzer, 1974 1985, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8533 8547, 1989.
  • Thoning, K.W., T.J. Conway, N. Zhang, and D. Kitzis, Analysis System for Measurement of CO2 Mixing Ratios in Flask Air Samples, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1349-1356, 1995.
  • Thoning, K.W., P.P. Tans, and W.D. Komhyr, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2. Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974 1985., J. Geophys. Res. ,94, 8549 8565, 1989.
  • Thoning, K.W. Selection of NOAA/GMCC CO2 data from Mauna Loa Observatory, In The Statistical Treatment of CO2 Data Records, NOAA Tech. Mem. (ERL ARL 173), Environ. Res. Lab., 131 pp., 1989
  • Waterman, L.S., D. W. Nelson, W.D. Komhyr, T.B. Harris, and K.W. Thoning, Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements at Cape Matatula, American Samoa, 1976 1984., J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14817 14829, 1989.

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - Tall-tower measurements

  • Bakwin, P.S, P.P. Tans, C. Zhao, W. Ussler III, and E. Quesnell, Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower, Tellus. 47B, 535-549, 1995.

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - Aircraft measurements

  • Bakwin, P.S., Conway, T.J., Dlugokencky, E.J., Guenther, D.W., Kitzis, D, Lang, P.M., Masarie, K.A., Novelli, P.C., Thoning, K.W., Tans, P.P., and Waterman, L.S., in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory GMD NO. 22 Summary Report 1994, edited by J.T. Peterson and R.M. Rosson, pp 18-30, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, 1994.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), United States - Flask measurements

  • Keeling, R. F., S. R. Shertz, 1992, "Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global carbon cycle" Nature, 358, 723-727.
  • Keeling, R.F., Piper, S.C., Heimann, M., 1996, "Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration", Nature, 381, 218-221.
  • Keeling, R.F., Stephens, B.B., Najjar, R.G., Doney, S.C., Archer, D., Heimann, M., 1998, "Seasonal Variations in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio in relation to kinetics of air-sea gas exchange", Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 141-163.
  • Keeling, R.F., McEvoy, E., Manning, A.C., Shertz, S.R., 1998, "Methods for measuring changes in atmospheric O2 concentration and their application to southern hemisphere air", Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 3381-3397.
  • Stephens, B.B., Keeling, R.F., Heimann, M., Six, K.D., Murnane, R.,K. Caldeira, 1988, "Testing global ocean carbon cycle models using measurements of atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentration", Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 213-230.
  • Manning, A.C., Temporal variability of atmospheric oxygen from both continuous measurements and a flask sampling network: tools for studying the global carbon cycle, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 202pp, 2001.