The Reference Network is a part of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. The measurement programs include:

Filter results by selecting the projects to display:






Yellow symbols indicate discontinued sites


167 sites in 46 countries
Code Name Country Latitude Longitude Elevation (meters) Time from GMT Project Cooperating Agency
AAO* Airborne Aerosol Observing, Bondville, Illinois United States 40.050 -88.370 230.0 -6 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Airborne Flasks*
ABP* Arembepe, Bahia Brazil -12.770 -38.170 1.0 -3 hours Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente, Laboratorio de Quimica Atmosferica Surface Flasks*
ALT Alert, Nunavut Canada 82.451 -62.506 200.0 -4 hours Environment Canada Surface Flasks
AMS* Amsterdam Island France -37.950 77.530 150.0 +5 hours Centre des Faibles Radioactivities/TAAF Surface Flasks*
AMT Argyle, Maine United States 45.035 -68.682 53.0 -5 hours University of Maine Surface Flasks
In Situ Tall Tower
AMY Anmyeon-do Republic of Korea 36.539 126.329 85.1 +9 hours Korea Global Atmosphere Watch Center, Korea Meteorological Administration Surface Flasks
ARM* Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (SGP) United States 36.800 -97.500 -9999.99 -6 hours Airborne Flasks*
ASC Ascension Island United Kingdom -7.967 -14.400 85.0 -1 hours Met Office (United Kingdom) Surface Flasks
ASK Assekrem Algeria 23.262 5.632 2710.0 +1 hours Office National de la Meteorologie Surface Flasks
AVI* St. Croix, Virgin Islands United States 17.750 -64.750 3.0 -4 hours Fairleigh Dickinson University Surface Flasks*
AZR Terceira Island, Azores Portugal 38.766 -27.375 19.0 -1 hours Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica Surface Flasks
BAL* Baltic Sea Poland 55.350 17.220 3.0 +1 hours Morski Instytut Rybacki Surface Flasks*
BAO Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, Colorado United States 40.050 -105.004 1584.0 -7 hours Private Party; ESRL Physical Sciences Division; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks*
In Situ Tall Tower
BGI* Bradgate, Iowa United States 42.820 -94.410 355.1 -6 hours Hap's Air Service Airborne Flasks*
BHD Baring Head Station New Zealand -41.408 174.871 80.0 +12 hours National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Surface Flasks
BKT Bukit Kototabang Indonesia -0.202 100.318 845.0 +7 hours Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics Surface Flasks
BME* St. Davids Head, Bermuda United Kingdom 32.368 -64.648 12.0 -4 hours Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences Surface Flasks*
BMW Tudor Hill, Bermuda United Kingdom 32.265 -64.879 30.0 -4 hours Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences Surface Flasks
BNE* Beaver Crossing, Nebraska United States 40.800 -97.180 465.9 -6 hours Hap's Air Service Airborne Flasks*
BRW Barrow, Alaska United States 71.323 -156.611 11.0 -9 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Surface Flasks
In Situ Observatory
BSC* Black Sea, Constanta Romania 44.178 28.665 0.0 +2 hours Romanian Marine Research Institute Surface Flasks*
CAR Briggsdale, Colorado United States 40.370 -104.300 1740.0 -7 hours Weisbart Aircraft Services Airborne Flasks
CBA Cold Bay, Alaska United States 55.210 -162.720 21.3 -9 hours U.S. National Weather Service Surface Flasks
CGO Cape Grim, Tasmania Australia -40.683 144.690 94.0 +10 hours CSIRO, Atmospheric Research Surface Flasks
CHR Christmas Island Republic of Kiribati 1.700 -157.152 0.0 -10 hours Dive Kiribati Surface Flasks
CHS Cherskii Russia 68.513 161.531 30.0 +11 hours Surface In Situ
CIB Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera (CIBA) Spain 41.810 -4.930 845.0 +1 hours Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera, Univ. of Valladolid Surface Flasks
CMA Cape May, New Jersey United States 38.830 -74.320 0.0 -5 hours AirTec, Inc Airborne Flasks
CMO* Cape Meares, Oregon United States 45.478 -123.969 30.0 -8 hours Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology Surface Flasks*
COS* Cosmos Peru -12.120 -75.330 4600.0 -5 hours Instituto Geofisico de Peru Surface Flasks*
CPT Cape Point South Africa -34.352 18.489 230.0 +2 hours South African Weather Service Surface Flasks
CRV Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) United States 64.986 -147.598 611.4 -8 hours NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory; NOAA/NESDIS/OSPO/FCDAS Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks
In Situ Tall Tower
CRZ Crozet Island France -46.434 51.848 197.0 +5 hours Centre des Faibles Radioactivities/TAAF Surface Flasks
DND Dahlen, North Dakota United States 47.500 -99.240 472.4 -6 hours FARGO JET CENTER Airborne Flasks
DRP Drake Passage N/A -59.000 -64.690 0.0 -4 hours National Science Foundation Surface Flasks
DSI Dongsha Island Taiwan 20.699 116.730 3.0 +8 hours National Central University, Taiwan Surface Flasks
EIC Easter Island Chile -27.160 -109.428 47.0 -7 hours Direccion Meteorologica de Chile Surface Flasks
ESP Estevan Point, British Columbia Canada 49.383 -126.544 7.0 -8 hours Private Party Airborne Flasks
ETL East Trout Lake, Saskatchewan Canada 54.350 -104.983 492.0 -6 hours Environment Canada Airborne Flasks
FLK* Falkland Islands United Kingdom -51.700 -57.870 51.0 -5 hours British Meteorological Service Surface Flasks*
FTL* Fortaleza Brazil -3.520 -38.280 3.0 -3 hours LBA INPE/CPTEC Airborne Flasks*
FWI* Fairchild, Wisconsin United States 44.660 -90.960 334.3 -6 hours Hap's Air Service Airborne Flasks*
GLF* Conejo Mexico 18.720 -95.630 113.0 -6 hours Sistema Internacional de Monitoreo Ambiental Surface Flasks*
GMI Mariana Islands Guam 13.386 144.656 0.0 +10 hours University of Guam/Marine Laboratory Surface Flasks
GOZ* Dwejra Point, Gozo Malta 36.048 14.889 1.0 +1 hours Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Environment Surface Flasks*
HAA* Molokai Island, Hawaii United States 21.230 -158.950 3.0 -10 hours Pacific Air Charters, Inc. Airborne Flasks*
HBA Halley Station, Antarctica United Kingdom -75.605 -26.210 30.0 -2 hours British Antarctic Survey Surface Flasks
HFM* Harvard Forest, Massachusetts United States 42.538 -72.171 340.0 -5 hours FOUR STAR AVIATION Airborne Flasks*
HIL Homer, Illinois United States 40.070 -87.910 201.5 -6 hours M & M Aviation Services, Ltd. Airborne Flasks
HPB Hohenpeissenberg Germany 47.801 11.024 936.0 +1 hours Deutscher Wetterdienst Surface Flasks
HSU Humboldt State University United States 41.059 -124.750 0.0 -8 hours Humbolt State University Surface Flasks
HUN Hegyhatsal Hungary 46.950 16.650 248.0 +1 hours Hungarian Meteorological Service Surface Flasks
ICE Storhofdi, Vestmannaeyjar Iceland 63.400 -20.288 118.0 +0 hours Icelandic Meteorological Office Surface Flasks
INX INFLUX (Indiana Flux Experiment) United States 39.581 -86.421 250.0 -5 hours Purdue University Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks
ITN* Grifton, North Carolina United States 35.365 -77.393 8.0 -5 hours WITN Television Surface Flasks*
In Situ Tall Tower*
IZO Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands Spain 28.309 -16.499 2372.9 +0 hours Izana Observatory/Meteorological State Agency of Spain Surface Flasks
KCO* Kaashidhoo Republic of Maldives 4.970 73.470 1.0 +5 hours University of California, San Diego (INDOEX) Surface Flasks*
KEY Key Biscayne, Florida United States 25.665 -80.158 1.0 -5 hours NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Surface Flasks
KPA* Kitt Peak, Arizona United States 32.000 -112.000 2083.0 -7 hours Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Surface Flasks*
KUM Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii United States 19.520 -154.820 3.0 -10 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Surface Flasks
KZD* Sary Taukum Kazakhstan 44.084 76.871 595.0 +6 hours Kazakh Scientific Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate Surface Flasks*
KZM* Plateau Assy Kazakhstan 43.250 77.880 2519.0 +6 hours Kazakh Scientific Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate Surface Flasks*
LEF Park Falls, Wisconsin United States 45.945 -90.273 472.0 -6 hours Wisconsin Educational Communications Board & US Forest Service; MBMAS; USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory; USDA Forest Service Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks
In Situ Tall Tower
LEW Lewisburg, Pennsylvania United States 40.945 -76.879 161.0 -5 hours Earth Networks, Inc. Surface Flasks
LLB* Lac La Biche, Alberta Canada 54.950 -112.450 540.0 -7 hours Environment Canada Surface Flasks*
LLN Lulin Taiwan 23.470 120.870 2862.0 +8 hours Lulin Atmospheric Background Station Surface Flasks
LMP Lampedusa Italy 35.520 12.620 45.0 +2 hours Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l’Energia e l’Ambiente Surface Flasks
MBC* Mould Bay, Nunavut Canada 76.247 -119.353 30.0 -10 hours Environment Canada Surface Flasks*
MBO Mt. Bachelor Observatory United States 43.977 -121.686 2731.0 -8 hours University of Washington Surface In Situ
Surface Flasks
MCM* McMurdo Station, Antarctica United States -77.830 166.600 11.0 +12 hours National Science Foundation Surface Flasks*
MEX High Altitude Global Climate Observation Center Mexico 18.984 -97.311 4464.0 -6 hours Sistema Internacional de Monitoreo Ambiental Surface Flasks
MHD Mace Head, County Galway Ireland 53.326 -9.899 5.0 +0 hours National University of Ireland, Galway Surface Flasks
MID Sand Island, Midway United States 28.210 -177.380 11.0 -11 hours U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Surface Flasks
MKN* Mt. Kenya Kenya -0.062 37.297 3644.0 +3 hours Kenya Meteorological Department Surface Flasks*
MKO* Mauna Kea, Hawaii United States 19.830 -155.470 4220.0 -10 hours University of Hawaii/Institute for Astronomy Surface Flasks*
MLF* Mauna Loa, Hawaii United States 19.530 -155.580 3397.0 -10 hours Surface Flasks*
MLO Mauna Loa, Hawaii United States 19.536 -155.576 3397.0 -10 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Surface Flasks
In Situ Observatory
MVY* Marthas Vineyard, Massachusetts United States 41.330 -70.520 0.0 -5 hours Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Surface Flasks*
MWO Mt. Wilson Observatory United States 34.225 -118.059 1728.0 -8 hours UCLA Astrophysics/Solar Observatory Surface Flasks
NAT Maxaranguape Brazil -5.515 -35.260 15.0 -3 hours Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, Il Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente, Divisao de Quimica Ambiental Surface Flasks
NHA Worcester, Massachusetts United States 42.950 -70.630 0.0 -5 hours Private Party Airborne Flasks
NMB Gobabeb Namibia -23.580 15.030 456.0 +1 hours Gobabeb Training and Research Center Surface Flasks
NWF* Niwot Ridge Forest, Colorado United States 40.030 -105.550 3050.0 -7 hours University of Colorado/INSTAAR Surface Flasks*
NWR Niwot Ridge, Colorado United States 40.053 -105.586 3523.0 -7 hours University of Colorado/INSTAAR Surface Flasks
NZL* Kaitorete Spit New Zealand -43.830 172.630 3.0 +12 hours U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research Surface Flasks*
OIL* Oglesby, Illinois United States 41.280 -88.940 192.6 -6 hours MIDWEST AVTECH Airborne Flasks*
OPW* Olympic Peninsula, Washington United States 48.300 -124.628 486.0 -8 hours University of Washington Surface Flasks*
OXK Ochsenkopf Germany 50.030 11.808 1009.0 +1 hours Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Surface Flasks
PAL Pallas-Sammaltunturi, GAW Station Finland 67.970 24.120 560.0 +2 hours Finnish Meteorological Institute Surface Flasks
PCO* Pico, Azores Portugal 38.470 -28.400 2225.0 -1 hours Surface Flasks*
PFA Poker Flat, Alaska United States 65.070 -147.290 210.0 -9 hours Warbelows Air Ventures, Inc. Airborne Flasks
POCN00* Pacific Ocean (0 N) N/A 0.000 -155.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN05* Pacific Ocean (5 N) N/A 5.000 -151.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN10* Pacific Ocean (10 N) N/A 10.000 -149.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN15* Pacific Ocean (15 N) N/A 15.000 -145.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN20* Pacific Ocean (20 N) N/A 20.000 -141.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN25* Pacific Ocean (25 N) N/A 25.000 -139.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN30* Pacific Ocean (30 N) N/A 30.000 -135.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN35* Pacific Ocean (35 N) N/A 35.000 -137.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN40* Pacific Ocean (40 N) N/A 40.000 -136.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCN45* Pacific Ocean (45 N) N/A 45.000 -131.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS05* Pacific Ocean (5 S) N/A -5.000 -159.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS10* Pacific Ocean (10 S) N/A -10.000 -161.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS15* Pacific Ocean (15 S) N/A -15.000 -171.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS20* Pacific Ocean (20 S) N/A -20.000 -174.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS25* Pacific Ocean (25 S) N/A -25.000 -171.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS30* Pacific Ocean (30 S) N/A -30.000 -176.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
POCS35* Pacific Ocean (35 S) N/A -35.000 180.000 10.0 Surface Flasks*
PSA Palmer Station, Antarctica United States -64.920 -64.000 10.0 -3 hours National Science Foundation Surface Flasks
PSM* Point Six Mountain, Montana United States 47.030 -113.980 2462.0 -7 hours U.S. National Weather Service Surface Flasks*
PTA* Point Arena, California United States 38.955 -123.741 17.0 -8 hours Point Arena Lighthouse Keepers, Inc. Surface Flasks*
RIA* Rowley, Iowa United States 42.400 -91.840 298.7 -6 hours Hap's Air Service Airborne Flasks*
RPB Ragged Point Barbados 13.165 -59.432 15.0 -4 hours Private Party Surface Flasks
RTA Rarotonga Cook Islands -21.250 -159.830 3.0 -10 hours Air Rarotonga LTD. Airborne Flasks
SAN* Santarem Brazil -2.850 -54.950 78.0 -4 hours LBA INPE/CPTEC Airborne Flasks*
SCA Charleston, South Carolina United States 32.770 -79.550 0.0 -5 hours Orion Aviation Airborne Flasks
SCSN03* South China Sea (3 N) N/A 3.000 105.000 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCSN06* South China Sea (6 N) N/A 6.000 107.000 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCSN09* South China Sea (9 N) N/A 9.000 109.000 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCSN12* South China Sea (12 N) N/A 12.000 111.000 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCSN15* South China Sea (15 N) N/A 15.000 113.000 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCSN18* South China Sea (18 N) N/A 18.000 113.500 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCSN21* South China Sea (21 N) N/A 21.000 114.000 15.0 Surface Flasks*
SCT Beech Island, South Carolina United States 33.406 -81.833 115.2 -5 hours Savannah River National Laboratory, DOE; Savannah River National Laboratory and University of Georgia Surface Flasks
In Situ Tall Tower
SDZ Shangdianzi Peoples Republic of China 40.650 117.117 293.0 +8 hours Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) and Beijing Meteorological Bureau (BMB), China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Surface Flasks
SEY Mahe Island Seychelles -4.682 55.532 2.0 +4 hours Seychelles Bureau of Standards Surface Flasks
SGI* Bird Island, South Georgia United Kingdom -54.000 -38.050 30.0 -3 hours British Antarctic Survey Surface Flasks*
SGP Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma United States 36.607 -97.489 314.0 -6 hours Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks
SHM Shemya Island, Alaska United States 52.711 174.126 23.0 -10 hours Chugach McKinley Surface Flasks
SIO* La Jolla, California United States 32.830 -117.270 14.0 -8 hours Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Surface Flasks*
SMO Tutuila American Samoa -14.247 -170.564 42.0 -11 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Surface Flasks
In Situ Observatory
SNP Shenandoah National Park United States 38.617 -78.350 1008.0 -5 hours University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences Surface In Situ
SPO South Pole, Antarctica United States -89.980 -24.800 2810.0 +12 hours National Science Foundation Surface Flasks
In Situ Observatory
STC* Ocean Station C United States 54.000 -35.000 6.0 U.S. National Weather Service Surface Flasks*
STM* Ocean Station M Norway 66.000 2.000 0.0 +0 hours Norway Meteorological Institute Surface Flasks*
STR Sutro Tower, San Francisco, California United States 37.755 -122.452 254.0 -8 hours Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Surface Flasks
SUM Summit Greenland 72.596 -38.422 3209.5 -2 hours National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs Surface Flasks
SYO Syowa Station, Antarctica Japan -69.013 39.590 14.0 +3 hours National Institute of Polar Research Surface Flasks
TAC Tacolneston United Kingdom 52.518 1.139 56.0 +0 hours University of Bristol Surface Flasks
TAP Tae-ahn Peninsula Republic of Korea 36.738 126.133 16.0 +9 hours Korea-China Centre for Atmospheric Research Surface Flasks
TDF Tierra Del Fuego, Ushuaia Argentina -54.848 -68.311 12.0 -4 hours Servicio Meteorologico Nacional Surface Flasks
TGC Sinton, Texas United States 27.730 -96.860 0.0 -6 hours Skypark Aviation Airborne Flasks
THD Trinidad Head, California United States 41.054 -124.151 107.0 -8 hours Scientific Aviation, Inc; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks
TIK Hydrometeorological Observatory of Tiksi Russia 71.597 128.889 31.0 Surface Flasks
ULB* Ulaanbaatar Mongolia 47.400 106.000 1350.0 +8 hours Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Institute Airborne Flasks*
UTA Wendover, Utah United States 39.902 -113.718 1327.0 -7 hours U.S. National Weather Service Surface Flasks
UUM Ulaan Uul Mongolia 44.452 111.096 1007.0 +8 hours Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Institute Surface Flasks
VAA* Cartersville, Georgia United States 32.910 -79.360 239.9 -5 hours Phoenix Air Airborne Flasks*
WBI West Branch, Iowa United States 41.725 -91.353 241.7 -6 hours M & M Aviation Services, Ltd.; University of Iowa Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks
In Situ Tall Tower
WGC Walnut Grove, California United States 38.265 -121.491 0.0 -8 hours Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; DOE Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; KalScott Engineering Surface Flasks
Airborne Flasks*
In Situ Tall Tower
WIS WIS Station, Negev Desert Israel 30.860 34.781 477.0 +2 hours Weizmann Institute of Science Surface Flasks
WKT Moody, Texas United States 31.315 -97.327 251.0 -6 hours Blackland Research and Extension Center-Texas Agricultural Experiment Station; Pinnacle Towers Inc. Surface Flasks
In Situ Tall Tower
WLG Mt. Waliguan Peoples Republic of China 36.288 100.896 3810.0 +8 hours Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) and Qinghai Meteorological Bureau (QMB), China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Surface Flasks
WPCN00 Western Pacific Cruise (0 N) N/A 0.000 151.100 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCN05 Western Pacific Cruise (5 N) N/A 5.000 149.100 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCN10 Western Pacific Cruise (10 N) N/A 10.000 148.000 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCN15 Western Pacific Cruise (15 N) N/A 15.000 145.000 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCN20 Western Pacific Cruise (20 N) N/A 20.000 142.000 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCN25 Western Pacific Cruise (25 N) N/A 25.000 140.000 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCN30 Western Pacific Cruise (30 N) N/A 30.000 136.800 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCS05 Western Pacific Cruise (5 S) N/A -5.000 153.700 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCS10 Western Pacific Cruise (10 S) N/A -10.000 156.800 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCS15 Western Pacific Cruise (15 S) N/A -15.000 159.300 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCS20 Western Pacific Cruise (20 S) N/A -20.000 161.100 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCS25 Western Pacific Cruise (25 S) N/A -25.000 165.500 0.0 Surface Flasks
WPCS30 Western Pacific Cruise (30 S) N/A -30.000 168.000 0.0 Surface Flasks
ZEP Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Norway and Sweden 78.907 11.889 474.0 +1 hours Zeppelin Station/University of Stockholm Meteorological Institute Surface Flasks
* - Indicates discontinued site or project