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International Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers

2006 Assessment cover

Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006

World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 50

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

United Nations Environment Programme

World Meterological Organization

European Commission



Assessment Co-chairs

Ayité-Lô Nohende Ajavon, Daniel L. Albritton, Robert T. Watson

Assessment Scientific Steering Committee

Marie-Lise Chanin, Susana B. Diaz, John A. Pyle, A.R. Ravishankara, Theodore G. Shepherd

Chapters and Lead Authors

  1. Source Gases
    Chapter 1. Long-Lived Compounds (Cathy Clerbaux and Derek Cunnold)
    Chapter 2. Halogenated Very Short-Lived Substances (Katherine S. Law and William T. Sturges)
  2. Ozone Changes
    Chapter 3. Global Ozone: Past and Present (Martyn P. Chipperfield and Vitali E. Fioletov)
    Chapter 4. Polar Ozone: Past and Present (Paul A. Newman and Markus Rex)
  3. Future Expectations for Ozone, Ozone-Depleting Substances, and UV
    Chapter 5. Climate-Ozone Connections (Mark P. Baldwin and Martin Dameris)
    Chapter 6. The Ozone Layer in the 21st Century (Greg Bodeker and Darryn W. Waugh)
    Chapter 7. Surface Ultraviolet Radiation: Past, Present, and Future (Alkiviadis F. Bais and Dan Lubin)
    Chapter 8. Halocarbon Scenarios, Ozone Depletion Potentials, and Global Warming Potentials (John S. Daniel and Guus J.M. Velders)

Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2006 Update (David W. Fahey)

Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers

Ayité-Lô Nohende Ajavon Université de Lomé Togo
Hideharu Akiyoshi National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Daniel L. Albritton NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (retired) USA
Stephen O. Andersen Environmental Protection Agency USA
John Anderson Hampton University USA
Gustavo A. Argüello Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Argentina
Antti Arola Finnish Meteorological Institute Finland
Paul Ashford Caleb Management Services Ltd. UK
Elliot Atlas University of Miami USA
Pieter J. Aucamp Ptersa Environmental Consultants South Africa
John Austin NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory USA
Gnon Baba Université de Lomé Togo
Alkiviadis F. Bais Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece
Mark P. Baldwin NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. USA
Leonard A. Barrie World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
David Battisti University of Washington USA
Gufran Beig Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology India
Slimane Bekki Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Peter Bernath University of Waterloo Canada
Germar Bernhard Biospherical Instruments, Inc. USA
Lars Olof Björn Lund University Sweden
Donald R. Blake University of California at Irvine USA
Nicola J. Blake University of California at Irvine USA
Thomas Blumenstock Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany
Mario Blumthaler Medical University of Innsbruck Austria
Greg Bodeker National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Rumen D. Bojkov Dresden Technical University Germany
Janet F. Bornman University of Waikato New Zealand
Geir O. Braathen World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Peter Braesicke University of Cambridge UK
Bram Bregman KNMI, now with TNO Business Unit Built and Geosciences The Netherlands
Christoph Brühl Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie - Mainz Germany
Claus Brüning European Commission Belgium
James B. Burkholder NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
John P. Burrows University of Bremen Germany
Neal Butchart Climate Research Division, Met Office UK
James H. Butler NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
André Butz Universität Heidelberg Germany
James Calm Engineering Consultant USA
Pablo O. Canziani Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina/CONICET Argentina
Daniel Cariolle Météo-France France
Lucy Carpenter University of York UK
Ken S. Carslaw University of Leeds UK
Marie-Lise Chanin Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Martyn P. Chipperfield University of Leeds UK
Natalia E. Chubarova Moscow State University Russia
Hans Claude German Meteorological Service, Hohenpeissenberg Germany
Cathy Clerbaux Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Pierre-Francois Coheur Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium
William J. Collins Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office UK
Brian J. Connor National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
David B. Considine NASA Langley Research Center USA
Eugene Cordero San Jose State University USA
R. Anthony Cox University of Cambridge UK
John Crowley Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie - Mainz Germany
Paul Crutzen Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie - Mainz Germany
Derek M. Cunnold Georgia Institute of Technology USA
Martin Dameris DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
John S. Daniel NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Michael Danilin The Boeing Company USA
Philippe Demoulin Université de Liège Belgium
Susana B. Diaz Centro Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas Argentina
Marcel Dorf Universität Heidelberg Germany
Anne R. Douglass NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Katja Drdla NASA Ames Research Center USA
Ellsworth G. Dutton NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Geoffrey S. Dutton CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Kalju Eerme Tartu Observatory Estonia
Tatiana Egorova World Radiation Center/Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH Switzerland
Andreas Engel Universität Frankfurt Germany
Christine A. Ennis CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Carynelisa Erlick The Hebrew University Israel
David Etheridge CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research Australia
Wayne Evans NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. USA
Veronika Eyring DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
David W. Fahey NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Uwe Feister Deutscher Wetterdienst Germany
Wuhu Feng University of Leeds UK
Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada Canada
Horst Fischer Max Planck Institut für Chemie - Mainz Germany
Lawrence E. Flynn NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service USA
Ian Folkins Dalhousie University Canada
Piers M.D. Forster University of Leeds UK
Paul J. Fraser CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research Australia
John Frederick University of Chicago USA
Katja Frieler Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam Germany
Stacey Hollandsworth Frith Science Systems and Applications, Inc. USA
Lucien Froidevaux NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory USA
Jan Fuglestvedt University of Oslo Norway
Rolando R. Garcia National Center for Atmospheric Research USA
Marvin A. Geller State University of New York, Stony Brook USA
Andrew Gettelman National Center for Atmospheric Research USA
H. Peter Gies Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency Australia
Nathan P. Gillett University of East Anglia UK
Marco A. Giorgetta Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie - Hamburg Germany
Sophie Godin-Beekmann Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS France
David M. Golden Stanford University and SRI International USA
Marco González United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Florence Goutail Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Hans-F. Graf Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Germany
Claire Granier NOAA ESRL and Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) USA/France
Julian Gröbner Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos Switzerland
Serge Guillas Georgia Institute of Technology USA
Joanna D. Haigh Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine UK
Neil R.P. Harris European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit UK
Dennis Hartmann University of Washington USA
Alain Hauchecorne Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Didier Hauglustaine CNRS-Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement France
Sachiko Hayashida Naru Women's University Japan
Peter H. Haynes University of Cambridge UK
Jay Herman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
David J. Hofmann NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Lon Hood University of Arizona USA
Dale Hurst CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Abdelmoneim A.R. Ibrahim Egyptian Meteorological Authority Egypt
Mohammad Ilyas University College of Engineering North Malaysia Malaysia
Takashi Imamura National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Ivar Isaksen University of Oslo Norway
Charles H. Jackman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Elena Jimenez Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha Spain
Paul Johnston National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Roderic L. Jones University of Cambridge UK
Hiroshi Kanzawa Nagoya University Japan
David Karoly University of Oklahoma USA
Jussi Kaurola Finnish Meteorological Institute Finland
S. Randy Kawa NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Jack A. Kaye NASA Headquarters USA
M.A.K. Khalil Portland State University USA
Douglas E. Kinnison National Center for Atmospheric Research USA
Bjørn Knudsen Danish Meteorological Institute Denmark
Malcolm K.W. Ko NASA Langley Research Center USA
Chester Koblinsky NOAA Climate Program Office USA
Peter Koepke University of Munich Germany
Laurie J. Kovalenko NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory USA
Karin Kreher National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Nickolay A. Krotkov NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Paul B. Krummel CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research Australia
Janusz W. Krzyścin Polish Academy of Sciences Poland
Lambert Kuijpers Technical University Eindhoven The Netherlands
Michael J. Kurylo NASA Headquarters USA
Esko Kyrö Finnish Meteorological Institute Finland
Shyam Lal Physical Research Laboratory India
Ulrike Langematz Freie Universität Berlin Germany
Kathleen O. Lantz CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Katherine S. Law Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Mark G. Lawrence Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie - Mainz Germany
J. Ben Liley National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Zenobia Litynska Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Poland
Nathaniel J. Livesey NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory USA
Jennifer Logan Harvard University USA
Manuel López-Puertas Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia Spain
Dan Lubin Scripps Institution of Oceanography USA
Emmanuel Mahieu Université de Liège Belgium
Eva Mancini Università degli Studi dell'Aquila Italy
Gloria L. Manney NASA JPL and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology USA
Alistair Manning Climate Research Division, Met Office UK
Elisa Manzini Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Italy
Marion Marchand Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Céline Mari Laboratoire d'Aérologie, CNRS/Université Paul Sabatier France
Katja Matthes National Center for Atmospheric Research USA
Bernhard Mayer Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Germany
Archie McCulloch University of Bristol UK
Mack McFarland DuPont Fluoroproducts USA
Richard L. McKenzie National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Richard D. McPeters NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Davit Melkonyan Armenian State Hydrometeorological and Monitoring Service Armenia
Pauline Midgley M&D Consulting Germany
Alvin J. Miller NOAA NWS Climate Prediction Center USA
John Miller NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Kenneth R. Minschwaner New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology USA
Stephen A. Montzka NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Jens Mühle Scripps Institution of Oceanography USA
Rolf Müller Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany
Nzioka John Muthama University of Nairobi Kenya
Hideaki Nakane National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Eric R. Nash Science Systems and Applications, Inc. USA
Ray Nassar University of Waterloo Canada
Michael Newchurch University of Alabama in Huntsville USA
Paul A. Newman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Ole John Nielsen University of Copenhagen Denmark
Simon O'Doherty University of Bristol UK
Alan O'Neill University of Reading UK
Samuel Oltmans NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
David E. Oram University of East Anglia UK
Yvan J. Orsolini Norwegian Institute for Air Research Norway
Eduardo Palenque Universidad Mayor de San Andrés Bolivia
Panos Papagiannakopoulos University of Crete Greece
Steven Pawson NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Thomas Peter Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Zurich Switzerland
Irina Petropavlovskikh CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Klaus Pfeilsticker Universität Heidelberg Germany
Rubén D. Piacentini National University of Rosario Argentina
Giovanni Pitari Università degli Studi dell'Aquila Italy
John M.C. Plane University of Leeds UK
Ulrich Platt Universität Heidelberg Germany
Ian Plumb CSIRO Industrial Physics Australia
R. Alan Plumb Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA
David Plummer Environment Canada Canada
Lorenzo M. Polvani Columbia University USA
Lamont R. Poole Science Applications International Corporation USA
Robert W. Portmann NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Gilles Poulet Université d'Orléans France
Michael Prather University of California at Irvine USA
Ronald Prinn Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA
John A. Pyle University of Cambridge UK
S. Ramachandran Physical Research Laboratory India
V. Ramaswamy NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory USA
Cora E. Randall University of Colorado, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics USA
William Randel National Center for Atmospheric Research USA
A.R. Ravishankara NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Thomas Reddmann Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany
Claire Reeves University of East Anglia UK
Stefan Reimann Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, EMPA Switzerland
Ellis E. Remsberg NASA Langley Research Center USA
Markus Rex Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam Germany
Robert Rhew University of California at Berkeley USA
Curtis P. Rinsland NASA Langley Research Center USA
Alan Robock Rutgers University USA
José M. Rodríguez NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Geert-Jan Roelofs University of Utrecht The Netherlands
Bjørg Rognerud University of Oslo Norway
Howard Roscoe British Antarctic Survey UK
Karen Rosenlof NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Eugene Rozanov World Radiation Center/Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH Switzerland
James M. Russell III Hampton University USA
Ross J. Salawitch Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology USA
Michelle L. Santee Jet Propulsion Laboratory USA
Benjamin D. Santer Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory USA
Toru Sasaki Japan Meteorological Agency Japan
Yasuhiro Sasano National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Robert Sausen DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
Cornelius Schiller Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany
Ulrich Schmidt Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Germany
Robyn Schofield CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Ulrich Schumann DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
John F. Scinocca Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Univ. Victoria Canada
Robert B. Scott University of Texas USA
Gunther Seckmeyer University of Hannover Germany
Megumi Seki United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Theodore G. Shepherd University of Toronto Canada
Kiyotaka Shibata Meteorological Research Institute Japan
Drew Shindell NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies USA
Keith P. Shine The University of Reading UK
Emily Shuckburgh University of Cambridge UK
Peter Simmonds University of Bristol UK
Isobel Simpson University of California at Irvine USA
Howard J. Singer NOAA National Weather Service USA
Cynthia Shaw Singleton CU Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics USA
Björn-Martin Sinnhuber University of Bremen Germany
Miriam Sinnhuber University of Bremen Germany
Christopher E. Sioris Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics USA
Pavla Skrivankova Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Czech Republic
Harry Slaper National Institute for Public Health and the Environment The Netherlands
James R. Slusser Colorado State University USA
Sergei P. Smyshlyaev Russian State Hydrometeorological University Russia
Susan Solomon NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Johannes Staehelin Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Zurich Switzerland
Knut Stamnes Stevens Institute of Technology USA
Wolfgang Steinbrecht German Weather Service, Hohenpeissenberg Germany
Andrea Stenke DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
Richard M. Stimpfle Harvard University USA
Richard S. Stolarski NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Frode Stordal University of Oslo Norway
Susan Strahan NASA Goddard Space Flight Center USA
Hamish Struthers National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
William T. Sturges University of East Anglia UK
Azadeh Tabazadeh Stanford University USA
Masaaki Takahashi University of Tokyo Japan
David W. Tarasick Environment Canada Canada
Yukio Terao Harvard University USA
Larry W. Thomason NASA Langley Research Center USA
David W.J. Thompson Colorado State University USA
Wenshou Tian University of Leeds UK
Simone Tilmes National Center for Atmospheric Research USA
Claudisa Timmreck Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie - Hamburg Germany
Darin Toohey University of Colorado USA
Cathy Trudinger CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research Australia
Jan C. van der Leun Ecofys The Netherlands
Costas Varotsos University of Athens Greece
Guus J.M. Velders Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency The Netherlands
Daniel P. Verdonik Hughes Associates, Inc. USA
Mario Visca Ausimont, S.p.A. Italy
Roland von Glasow Universität Heidelberg Germany
Marc von Hobe Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany
John Michael Wallace University of Washington USA
Timothy J. Wallington Ford Motor Company USA
Nicola J. Warwick University of Cambridge UK
Robert T. Watson World Bank USA
Darryn W. Waugh The Johns Hopkins University USA
Elizabeth C. Weatherhead CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Ann Webb University of Manchester UK
Mark Weber University of Bremen Germany
Philipp Weihs Universität für Bodenkultur Wein Austria
Debra K. Weisenstein Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. USA
Ray F. Weiss Scripps Institution of Oceanography USA
Paul Wennberg California Institute of Technology USA
Paul Wine Georgia Institute of Technology USA
Stephen Wood National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Donald J. Wuebbles University of Illinois USA
Eun-Su Yang Georgia Institute of Technology USA
Margarita Yela Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial Spain
Shigeo Yoden Kyoto University Japan
Yoko Yokouchi National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Vladimir Yushkov Central Aerological Observatory Russia
Shari A. Yvon-Lewis Texas A&M University USA
Rudolphe Zander Université de Liège Belgium
Francesco Zaratti Universidad Mayor de San Andrés Bolivia
Joseph M. Zawodny NASA Langley Research Center USA
Christos S. Zerefos National and Kapodestrian University of Athens Greece
Tong Zhu Peking University China

Chapter Editorial Contributors

Chapter 1: Long-Lived Compounds
Maya George Service d'Aéronomie / IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ) France
Chapter 4: Polar Ozone: Past and Present
Rose M. Kendall Computer Sciences Corporation USA
Kathy A. Thompson Computer Sciences Corporation USA
Chapter 5: Climate-Oozone Connections
Amy Guenther NorthWest Research Associates USA
Chapter 6: The Ozone Layer in the 21st Century
Hisako Shiona National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand
Twenty Questions and Answers about the Ozone Layer: 2006 Update
Brenda S. Irish NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Debra A. Dailey-Fisher NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA

Sponsoring Organizations Liaisons

Geir O. Braathen World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Marco González United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Daniel L. Albritton National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (retired) USA
Michael J. Kurylo National Institute of Standards and Technology; NASA Headquarters USA
Claus Brüning European Commission Belgium

Coordinating Editor

Christine A. Ennis CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA

Technical Editing

Christine A. Ennis CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA

Reference Research and Editing

Heather L. McCullough NOAA Boulder Laboratories Library USA

Publication/Graphics Design and Layout

Debra Dailey-Fisher NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Dennis Dickerson (Graphics Design, "Twenty Questions") Respond Grafiks USA

Editorial Assistance

Karen M. Layman NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Debra Dailey-Fisher NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA

Conference Coordination and Documentation

Geir O. Braathen World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Chantal Renaudot World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Catherine Michaut CNRS/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace France
Christine A. Ennis CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Jeanne S. Waters NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Kathy A. Thompson Computer Sciences Corporation USA

Conference Support

Jeanne S. Waters NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Kathy A. Thompson Computer Sciences Corporation USA
Catherine A. Burgdorf CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Debra Dailey-Fisher NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Marie-Claude Mermillod World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Rose M. Kendall Computer Sciences Corporation USA
Laurent Bourdette Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace France
Karen M. Layman NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Melinda Tignor IPCC Working Group I Technical Support Unit USA
Kyle Terran University Corporation for Atmospheric Research USA

Computing and Networking Support

Catherine A. Burgdorf CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Richard J. Tisinai CIRES/NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA
Vladislava Toukalek World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Jalil Housni World Meteorological Organization Switzerland

Document Distribution

Jeanne S. Waters NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory USA