International Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers

2002 Assessment cover

Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002

World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 47

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

United Nations Environment Programme

World Meterological Organization

European Commission



Assessment Co-chairs

Ayité-Lô Nohende Ajavon, Daniel L. Albritton, Gérard Mégie, and Robert T. Watson

Chapters and Lead Authors

Chapter 1. Controlled Substances and Other Source Gases Stephen A. Montzka and Paul J. Fraser
Chapter 2. Very Short-Lived Halogen and Sulfur Substances Malcolm K.W. Ko and Gilles Poulet
Chapter 3. Polar Stratospheric Ozone: Past and Future Paul A. Newman and John A. Pyle
Chapter 4. Global Ozone: Past and Future Martyn P. Chipperfield and William J. Randel
Chapter 5. Surface Ultraviolet Radiation: Past and Future James B. Kerr and Gunther Seckmeyer
Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer David W. Fahey

Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers

Alberto Adriani Consiglio Nazionale della Richerche Istituto di Fisica dell'Atmosfera Italy
Ayité-Lô Nohende Ajavon Université de Lomé Togo
Daniel L. Albritton NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Douglas R. Allen Naval Research Laboratory US
Georgios T. Amanatidis European Commission Belgium
Stephen O. Andersen Environmental Protection Agency US
James Anderson Harvard University US
Gustavo A. Argüello Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Argentina
Antti Arola Finnish Meteorological Institute Finland
Roger Atkinson University of California at Riverside US
Pieter J. Aucamp Ptersa Environmental Consultants South Africa
John Austin UK Meteorological Office UK
Linnea Avallone University of Colorado US
Alkiviadis F. Bais Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece
Mark P. Baldwin NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. US
Stephen R. Beagley York University Canada
Pranvera Bekteshi Hydrometeorological Institute Albania
Germar Bernhard Biospherical Instruments, Inc. US
Donald R. Blake University of California at Irvine US
Nicola J. Blake University of California at Irvine US
Mario Blumthaler Universität Innsbruck Austria
Greg Bodeker National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
Rumen D. Bojkov Centre for International Postgraduate Studies of Environmental Management Germany
Olivier Boucher CNRS-Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille France
Michel Bourqui University of Reading UK
Geir O. Braathen Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) Norway
Peter Braesicke University of Cambridge UK
Guy Brasseur Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Germany
Bram Bregman Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute The Netherlands
Christoph Brühl Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany
William H. Brune Pennsylvania State University US
James H. Burkholder NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Neal Butchart UK Meteorological Office UK
James H. Butler NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
James Calm Engineering Consultant US
Pablo O. Canziani CONICET/Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
Ken S. Carslaw University of Leeds UK
Marie-Lise Chanin Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS France
Mian Chin Georgia Institute of Technology/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Martyn P. Chipperfield University of Leeds UK
John Christy University of Alabama at Huntsville US
Peter S. Connell Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US
Brian Connor National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
David B. Considine NASA Langley Research Center US
R. Anthony Cox University of Cambridge UK
Derek M. Cunnold Georgia Institute of Technology US
Martin Dameris DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
John S. Daniel NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Richard G. Derwent UK Meteorological Office UK
Susana B. Diaz Centro Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas (CADIC) Argentina
Ed Dlugokencky NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
Anne R. Douglass NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Katja Drdla NASA Ames Research Center US
Thomas Duafala Tri-Cal Research Division US
Ellsworth G. Dutton NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
Victor L. Dvortsov PacifiCorp US
Ezequiel Echer Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) Brazil
Stephen Eckermann Naval Research Laboratory US
Kalju Eerme Tartu Observatory Estonia
James W. Elkins NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
Andreas Engel Universität Frankfurt Germany
Christine A. Ennis NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US
David W. Fahey NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Joe Farman European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit UK
Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada Canada
Eric L. Fleming NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Ian Folkins Dalhousie University Canada
Piers M. de F. Forster University of Reading UK
Paul J. Fraser CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia
Randall R. Friedl NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory US
Ru-Shan Gao NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Rolando R. Garcia National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Marvin A. Geller State University of New York, Stony Brook US
Melvyn Gelman NOAA NWS Climate Prediction Center US
Christian George Laboratoire d'Application de la Chimie à l'Environnement/University of Lyon France
Sophie Godin-Beekmann Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS France
Marco González United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Florence Goutail Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS France
Michael Graber United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Hans-F. Graf Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Germany
Volker Grewe DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
Joanna D. Haigh Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine UK
Patrick Hamill San Jose State University US
David B. Harper The Queen's University of Belfast UK
Neil R.P. Harris European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit UK
Didier Hauglustaine CNRS-Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement France
Peter H. Haynes University of Cambridge UK
Jay R. Herman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
David J. Hofmann NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
James R. Holton University of Washington US
Robert D. Hudson University of Maryland US
Drusilla Hufford Environmental Protection Agency US
Abdelmoneim A. Ibrahim Egyptian Meteorological Authority Egypt
Mohammad Ilyas University of Science Malaysia Malaysia
Takashi Imamura National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Ivar S.A. Isaksen University of Oslo Norway
Charles H. Jackman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Daniel J. Jacob Harvard University US
Mauricio Jaramillo-Ayerbe Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Cali Colombia
Paul Johnston National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
David Karoly Monash University Australia
Nozomi Kawamoto National Space Development Agency Japan
Jack A. Kaye NASA Office of Earth Science US
James B. Kerr Meteorological Service of Canada Canada
M.A.K. Khalil Portland State University US
Peter W. Kiedron State University of New York at Albany US
Dieter Kley Institut für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany
Bjørn M. Knudsen Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut Denmark
Malcolm K.W. Ko Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. US
Yutaka Kondo University of Tokyo Japan
Yuri Koshelkov Central Aerological Observatory Russia
Karin Kreher National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
Nickolay A. Krotkov University of Maryland US
Janusz W. Krzyscin Polish Academy of Sciences Poland
Lambert Kuijpers Technical University Pav The Netherlands
Michael J. Kurylo NASA Headquarters US
Karin Labitzke Freie Universität Berlin Germany
Murari Lal Indian Institute of Technology India
Shyam Lal Physical Research Laboratory India
Ulrike Langematz Freie Universität Berlin Germany
Kathleen O. Lantz NOAA Air Resources Laboratory US
Neils Larsen Danish Meteorological Institute Denmark
Katherine S. Law University of Cambridge UK
Mark G. Lawrence Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany
J. Ben Liley National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
Roger Lin NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction/RS Information Systems US
Shaw Liu Academia Sinica Taiwan R.O.C.
Jennifer A. Logan Harvard University US
Craig S. Long NOAA NWS Climate Prediction Center US
Daniel Lubin Scripps Institution of Oceanography US
A. Robert MacKenzie Lancaster University UK
Sasha Madronich National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Emmanuel Mahieu Université de Liège Belgium
Gloria L. Manney NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/New Mexico Highlands University US
Elisa Manzini Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Germany
Céline Mari Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Observatoire Midi Pyrénées France
Timothy J. Martin Universität Graz Austria
W. Andrew Matthews National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
Konrad Mauersberger Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik Germany
Archie McCulloch Marbury Technical Consulting UK
Gordon McFadyen Scottish Environment Protection Agency UK
Mack McFarland E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company US
Daniel S. McKenna National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Richard L. McKenzie National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) New Zealand
Richard D. McPeters NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Ralf Meerkötter DLR-Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
Gérard Mégie Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France
Inna A. Megretskaia Harvard University US
Davit Melkonyan Department of Hydrometeorology Armenia
Abdelwahid Mellouki CNRS-Laboratoire de Combustion et Systèmes Réactifs France
Pauline M. Midgley M&D Consulting Germany
Alvin J. Miller NOAA NWS Climate Prediction Center US
Stephen A. Montzka NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
Rolf Müller Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Germany
Nzioka John Muthama University of Nairobi Kenya
Tatsuya Nagashima National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Hideaki Nakane National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Eric R. Nash Science Systems and Applications, Inc. US
John Nash UK Meteorological Office UK
Patrick J. Neale Smithsonian Environmental Research Center US
Paul A. Newman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Samuel J. Oltmans NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US
Alan O'Neill University of Reading UK
Michael Oppenheimer Princeton University US
David E. Oram University of East Anglia UK
Eduardo Palenque Instituto de Investigaciones Físcias, Universidad Mayor de San Andres Bolivia
Panos Papagiannakopuolos University of Crete Greece
David Parker Hadley Centre Met Office UK
Steven Pawson Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center/University of Maryland US
Stuart A. Penkett University of East Anglia UK
Sunil Kumar Peshin India Meteorological Department India
Thomas Peter Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH-Zurich Switzerland
Klaus Pfeilsticker Universität Heidelberg Germany
Giovanni Pitari Università L'Aquila Italy
Ulrich Platt Universität Heidelberg Germany
Ian Plumb CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics Australia
Jean-Pierre Pommereau Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS France
Lamont R. Poole NASA Langley Research Center US
Robert W. Portmann NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Gilles Poulet CNRS-Université d'Orléans France
Michael J. Prather University of California at Irvine US
Margarita Préndez Universidad de Chile Chile
Ronald Prinn Massachusetts Insititute of Technology US
Michael H. Proffitt World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
John A. Pyle Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge UK
S. Ramachandran Physical Research Laboratory India
V. Ramaswamy NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory US
William J. Randel National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Lakshman Randeniya CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics Australia
Philip J. Rasch National Center for Atmospheric Research US
A.R. Ravishankara NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Claire E. Reeves University of East Anglia UK
Markus Rex Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research Germany
Brian A. Ridley National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Curtis P. Rinsland NASA Langley Research Center US
Henning Rodhe University of Stockholm Sweden
José M. Rodríguez University of Miami US
Bjørg Rognerud Universitetet I Oslo Norway
Joan E. Rosenfield NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Martin N. Ross Aerospace Corporation US
Eugene Rozanov World Radiation Center and Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH Switzerland
James M. Russell III Hampton University US
Nelson A. Sabogal United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Ali A. Sabziparvar University of Bou-Ali Sina Iran
Ross J. Salawitch California Institute of Technology/NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory US
Eugenio Sanhueza Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas Venezuela
Michelle L. Santee NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory US
Toru Sasaki Japan Meteorological Agency Japan
Yasuhiro Sasano National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Sue M. Schauffler National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Ulrich Schmidt Universität Frankfurt Germany
Christina Schnadt DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
Ulrich Schumann DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Germany
M. Daniel Schwarzkopf NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory US
Paul W. Seakins University of Leeds UK
Gunther Seckmeyer Universität Hannover Germany
Dian J. Seidel NOAA Air Resources Laboratory US
Dudley E. Shallcross University of Bristol UK
Theodore G. Shepherd University of Toronto Canada
Drew T. Shindell NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies US
Keith P. Shine University of Reading UK
Masanori Shitamichi Japan Meteorological Agency Japan
Peter G. Simmonds University of Bristol UK
Paul C. Simon Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Belgium
Harry Slaper National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) The Netherlands
James R. Slusser Colorado State University US
Claire A. Smith Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine UK
Sergei Smyshlyaev Russian State Hydrometeorological University/State University of New York Russia
Susan Solomon NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Johannes Stähelin Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-Zurich Switzerland
L. Paul Steele CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia
Andreas Stohl Technical University Munich Germany
Richard S. Stolarski NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US
Susan E. Strahan University of Maryland US
B.H. Subbaraya Indian Space Research Organization Headquarters India
Christine C. Sweet Science and Technology Corporation US
Petteri Taalas Finnish Meteorological Institute Finland
Azadeh Tabazadeh NASA Ames Research Center US
David W. Tarasick Meteorological Service of Canada Canada
Gary Taylor Taylor/Wagner, Inc. Canada
Manfred Tevini Botanisches Institut Denmark
Christiane Textor Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Germany
Larry W. Thomason NASA Langley Research Center US
David Thompson Colorado State University US
Claudia Timmreck Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Germany
Darin W. Toohey University of Colorado US
Geoffrey C. Toon NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory US
Adrian F. Tuck NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Jan C. van der Leun Ecofys The Netherlands
Michel Van Roozendael Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Belgium
Michiel van Weele Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (KNMI) The Netherlands
Guus J.M. Velders National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) The Netherlands
Jean Verdebout European Commission Joint Research Centre Italy
Mario Visca Ausimont S.p.A. Italy
C. Michael Volk Universität Frankfurt Germany
Peter von der Gathen Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research Germany
Ray Wang Georgia Institute of Technology US
Joe W. Waters NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory US
Robert T. Watson World Bank US
Darryn W. Waugh Johns Hopkins University US
Elizabeth C. Weatherhead NOAA Air Resources Laboratory US
Philipp Weihs Universität für Bodenkultur Austria
Debra K. Weisenstein Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. US
Ray F. Weiss University of California at San Diego/Scripps Institution of Oceanography US
Paul O. Wennberg California Institute of Technology US
Fei Wu National Center for Atmospheric Research US
Donald J. Wuebbles University of Illinois US
Yoko Yokouchi National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Vladimir Yushkov Central Aerological Observatory Russia
Rodolphe J. Zander Université de Liège Belgium
Francesco Zaratti Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andres Bolivia
Joseph M. Zawodny NASA Langley Research Center US
Christos Zerefos Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece
Xiuji Zhou Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences China
Tong Zhu Peking University China

Chapter Editorial Contributors

Chapter 1: Controlled Substance and Other Source Gases
Nada Derek CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia
Chapter 3: Polar Stratospheric Ozone: Past and Future
Rose M. Kendall Computer Sciences Corporation US
Kathy A. Thompson Computer Sciences Corporation US

Sponsoring Organizations Liaisons

Michael H. Proffitt World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Marco González United Nations Environment Programme Kenya
Daniel L. Albritton National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration US
Michael J. Kurylo National Institute of Standards and Technology; NASA Headquarters US
Georgios T. Amanatidis European Commission Belgium

Coordinating Editor

Christine A. Ennis NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US

Technical Editing

Christine C. Sweet NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories US
Christine A. Ennis NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US

Publication Design and Layout

Debra Dailey-Fisher (Lead) NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Albert D. Romero (Consulting and Support) NOAA Mountain Administrative Support Center US
Dennis Dickerson (Graphics Design, "Twenty Questions") Concepts 3 US

Editorial Assistance

Jeanne S. Waters NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Barbara A. Keppler NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

Conference Coordination and Documentation

Michael H. Proffitt World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Marie-Christine Charriére World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Christine A. Ennis NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US
Jeanne S. Waters NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Kathy A. Thompson Computer Sciences Corporation US

Conference Support

Jeanne S. Waters NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Kathy A. Thompson Computer Sciences Corporation US
Catherine A. Burgdorf NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US
Debra Dailey-Fisher NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Rose M. Kendall Computer Sciences Corporation US
Randy Soderholm Computer Sciences Corporation US
Chantal Renaudot World Meteorological Organization Switzerland
Barbara A. Keppler NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Suzie Milano-Schoser NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Gordon McFadyen Scottish Environmental Protection Agency UK
Neil R.P. Harris European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit UK

Computing and Networking Support

Catherine A. Burgdorf NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US
Walter J. Harrop NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US
Gabrielle Accatino NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US
Ken Jamieson NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US
Richard J. Tisinai NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US