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International Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers

Cover of Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, Executive Summary

Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994
Executive Summary

World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 37

United Nations Environment Programme

World Meteorological Organization

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration



Assessment Co-chairs

Daniel L. Albritton, Robert T. Watson, and Piet J. Aucamp

Chapters and Lead Authors

Part 1. Observed Changes in Ozone and Source Gases

  • Chapter 1. Ozone Measurements (Neil R.P. Harris)
  • Chapter 2. Source Gases: Trends and Budgets (Eugenio Sanhueza)

Part 2. Atmospheric Processes Responsible for the Observed Changes in Ozone

  • Chapter 3. Polar Ozone (David W. Fahey)
  • Chapter 4. Tropical and Midlatitude Ozone (Roderic L. Jones)
  • Chapter 5. Tropospheric Ozone (Andreas Volz-Thomas and Brian A. Ridley)

Part 3. Model Simulations of Global Ozone

  • Chapter 6. Model Simulations of Stratospheric Ozone (Malcolm K.W. Ko)
  • Chapter 7. Model Simulations of Global Tropospheric Ozone (Frode Stordal)

Part 4. Consequences of Ozone Change

  • Chapter 8. Radiative Forcing and Temperature Trends (Keith P. Shine)
  • Chapter 9. Surface Ultraviolet Radiation (Richard L. McKenzie)

Part 5. Scientific Information for Future Decisions

  • Chapter 10. Methyl Bromide (Stuart A. Penkett)
  • Chapter 11. Subsonic and Supersonic Aircraft Emissions (Andreas Wahner and Marvin A. Geller)
  • Chapter 12. Atmospheric Degradation of Halocarbon Substitutes (R.A. Cox)
  • Chapter 13. Ozone Depletion Potentials, Global Warming Potentials, and Future Chlorine/Bromine Loading (Susan Solomon and Donald J. Wuebbles)

Coordinators: Common Questions About Ozone

Susan Solomon, NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, US
F. Sherwood Rowland, University of California at Irvine, US


Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers

Daniel L. Albritton
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

Marc Allaart
Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut The Netherlands

Fred N. Alyea
Georgia Institute of Technology US

Gerard Ancellet
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Meinrat O. Andreae
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany

James K. Angell
NOAA Air Resources Laboratory US

Frank Arnold
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik Germany

Roger Atkinson
University of California at Riverside US

Elliot Atlas
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Piet J. Aucamp
Department of Health South Africa

Linnea M. Avallone
University of California at Irvine US

Helmuth Bauer
Forschungszentrum für Umwelt u. Gesundheit Germany

Slimane Bekki
University of Cambridge UK

Tibor Bérces
Hungarian Academy of Sciences Hungary

T. Berntsen
Universitetet I Oslo Norway

Lane Bishop
Allied Signal US

Donald R. Blake
University of California at Irvine US

N.J. Blake
University of California at Irvine US

Mario Blumthaler
University of Innsbruck Austria

Greg E. Bodeker
University of Natal/NIWA South Africa

Rumen D. Bojkov
World Meteorological Organization Switzerland

Charles R. Booth
Biospherical Instruments US

Byron Boville
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Kenneth P. Bowman
Texas A&M University US

Geir Braathen
Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning Norway

Guy P. Brasseur
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Carl Brenninkmeijer
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research New Zealand

Christoph Brühl
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany

William H. Brune
Pennsylvania State University US

James H. Butler
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US

Sergio Cabrera
Universidad de Chile Chile

Bruce A. Callander
United Kingdom Meteorological Office UK

Daniel Cariolle
Météo-France, Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques France

Richard P. Cebula
Hughes STX US

William L. Chameides
Georgia Institute of Technology US

Sushil Chandra
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Marie-Lise Chanin
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

J. Christy
University of Alabama at Huntsville US

Ralph J. Cicerone
University of California at Irvine US

G.J.R. Coetzee
Weather Bureau South Africa

Peter S. Connell
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US

D. Considine
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

R.A. Cox
National Environmental Research Council UK

Paul J. Crutzen
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany

Derek N. Cunnold
Georgia Institute of Technology US

John Daniel
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US

Malgorzata Degórska
Polish Academy of Sciences Poland

John J. DeLuisi
NOAA Air Resources Laboratory US

Dirk De Muer
Institut Royal Météorologique de Belgique Belgium

Frank Dentener
Wageningen Agricultural University The Netherlands

Richard G. Derwent
UK Meteorological Office UK

Terry Deshler
University of Wyoming US

Susana B. Diaz
Austral Center of Scientific Research (CADIC/CONICET) Argentina

Russell Dickerson
University of Maryland US

J. Dignon
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US

Ed Dlugokencky
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US

Anne R. Douglass
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Tom Duafala
Methyl Bromide Global Coalition US

James E. Dye
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Dieter H. Ehhalt
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

James W. Elkins
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US

Christine Ennis
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES US

D. Etheridge
CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia

David W. Fahey
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

T. Duncan A. Fairlie
NASA Langley Research Center US

Donald A. Fisher
E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company US

Jack Fishman
NASA Langley Research Center US

Eric L. Fleming
Applied Research Corporation US

Frank Flocke
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

Lawrence E. Flynn
Software Corporation of America US

P.M. de F. Forster
University of Reading UK

James Franklin
Solvay S.A. Belgium

Paul J. Fraser
CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia

John E. Frederick
University of Chicago US

Lucien Froidevaux
California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory US

J.S. Fuglestvedt
Center for International Climate & Energy Research Norway

Reinhard Furrer
Freie Universität Berlin Germany

Ian E. Galbally
CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia

Brian G. Gardiner
British Antarctic Survey UK

Marvin A. Geller
State University of New York at Stony Brook US

Hartwig Gernandt
Alfred Wegener Institut Germany

James F. Gleason
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Sophie Godin
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Amram Golombek
Israel Institute for Biological Research Israel

Ulrich Görsdorf
Deutscher Wetterdienst Germany

Thomas E. Graedel
AT&T Bell Laboratories US

Claire Granier
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

William B. Grant
NASA Langley Research Center US

L.J. Gray
SERC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory UK

William L. Grose
NASA Langley Research Center US

J. Gross
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany

A.S. Grossman
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US

Alexander Gruzdev
Russian Academy of Sciences Russia

James E. Hansen
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies US

Neil R.P. Harris
European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit UK

Shiro Hatekeyama
National Institute for the Environment Japan

D.A. Hauglustaine
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Sachiko Hayashida
Nara Women's University Japan

G.D. Hayman
Harwell Laboratory/AEA Environment and Energy UK

Kjell Henriksen
University of Tromsø Norway

Ernest Hilsenrath
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

David J. Hofmann
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US

Stacey M. Hollandsworth
Applied Research Corporation US

James R. Holton
University of Washington US

Lon L. Hood
University of Arizona US

Øystein Hov
Universitetet I Bergen Norway

Carleton J. Howard
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

Robert D. Hudson
University of Maryland US

D. Hufford
Environmental Protection Agency US

Linda Hunt
NASA Langley Research Center US

Abdel M. Ibrahim
Egyptian Meteorological Authority Egypt

Mohammad Ilyas
University of Science Malaysia Malaysia

Ivar S.A. Isaksen
Universitetet I Oslo Norway

Tomoyuki Ito
Japan Meteorological Agency Japan

Charles H. Jackman
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Daniel J. Jacob
Harvard University US

Colin E. Johnson
UK Meteorological Office/AEA Technology UK

Harold S. Johnston
University of California at Berkeley US

Paul V. Johnston
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research New Zealand

Roderic L. Jones
University of Cambridge UK

Torben S. Jørgensen
Danish Meteorological Institute Denmark

Maria Kanakidou
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Igor L. Karol
A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory Russia

Prasad Kasibhatla
Georgia Institute of Technology US

Jack A. Kaye
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Hennie Kelder
Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut The Netherlands

James B. Kerr
Atmospheric Environment Service Canada

M.A.K. Khalil
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology US

Vyacheslav Khattatov
Central Aerological Observatory Russia

Jeffrey T. Kiehl
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Stefan Kinne
NASA Ames Research Center Germany

D. Kinnison
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US

Volker Kirchhoff
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Brazil

Malcolm K.W. Ko
Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. US

Ulf Köhler
Deutscher Wetterdienst Germany

Walter D. Komhyr
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US

Yutaka Kondo
Nagoya University Japan

Janusz W. Krzyscin
Polish Academy of Sciences Poland

Antti Kulmala
World Meteorological Organization Switzerland

Michael J. Kurylo
NASA Headquarters/NIST US

Karin Labitzke
Freie Universität Berlin Germany

Murari Lal
Indian Institute of Technology India

K.S. Law
University of Cambridge UK

G. LeBras
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Yuan-Pern Lee
National Tsing Hua University Taiwan

Franck Lefèvre
Météo France, Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques France

Jos Lelieveld
Wageningen University The Netherlands

Robert Lesclaux
Université de Bordeaux 1 France

Joel S. Levine
NASA Langley Research Center US

Joel Levy
NOAA Office of Global Programs US

J. Ben Liley
National Insitutute of Water & Atmospheric Research New Zealand

Peter Liss
University of East Anglia UK

David H. Lister
Defence Research Agency UK

Zenobia Litynska
Centre of Aerology Poland

Shaw C. Liu
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

Jennifer A. Logan
Harvard University US

Nicole Louisnard
Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales France

Pak Sum Low
United Nations Environment Programme Kenya

Daniel Lubin
University of California at San Diego US

Sasha Madronich
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Jerry Mahlman
NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory US

Gloria L. Manney
California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory US

Huiting Mao
State University of New York at Albany/Asrc US

W. Andrew Matthews
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research New Zealand

Konrad Mauersberger
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik Germany

Archie McCulloch
ICI Chemicals and Polymers Limited UK

Mack McFarland
E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company US

Michael E. McIntyre
University of Cambridge UK

Richard L. McKenzie
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research New Zealand

Richard D. McPeters
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Gérard Mégie
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Paulette Middleton
Science and Policy Associates US

Alvin J. Miller
NOAA National Meteorological Center US

Igor Mokhov
Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russia

Mario Molina
Massachusetts Institute of Technology US

Geert K. Moortgat
Max-Planck-Institute für Chemie Germany

Hideaki Nakane
National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan

Paul A. Newman
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Paul C. Novelli
University of Colorado US

Samuel J. Oltmans
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory US

Alan O'Neill
University of Reading UK

Michael Oppenheimer
Environmental Defense Fund US

S. Palermi
Universita' degli Studi-l'Aquila Italy

Ken Patten
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US

Juan Carlos Pelaez
Instituto de Meteorologia Cuba

Stuart A. Penkett
University of East Anglia UK

Joyce Penner
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory US

Thomas Peter
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie Germany

Leon F. Phillips
University of Canterbury New Zealand

Ken Pickering
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

R. Bradley Pierce
NASA Langley Research Center US

S. Pinnock
University of Reading UK

Michel Pirre
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Giovanni Pitari
Universita' degli Studi-l'Aquila Italy

Walter G. Planet
NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service US

R. Alan Plumb
Massachusetts Institute of Technology US

Jean-Pierre Pommereau
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique France

Lamont R. Poole
NASA Langley Research Center US

Michael J. Prather
University of California at Irvine US

Margarita Préndez
Universidad de Chile Chile

Ronald G. Prinn
Massachusetts Institute of Technology US

Joseph M. Prospero
University of Florida US

John A. Pyle
University of Cambridge UK

Lian Xiong Qiu
Academia Sinica China

Richard Ramaroson
Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales France

V. Ramaswamy
NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/Princeton University US

William Randel
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Philip J. Rasch
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

A.R. Ravishankara
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

William S. Reeburgh
University of California at Irvine US

C.E. Reeves
University of East Anglia UK

J. Richardson
NASA Langley Research Center US

Brian A. Ridley
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

David Rind
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies US

Curtis P. Rinsland
NASA Langley Research Center US

Aidan E. Roche
Lockheed Corporation US

Michael O. Rodgers
Georgia Institute of Technology US

Henning Rodhe
Stockholm University Sweden

Jose M. Rodriguez
Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. US

M. Roemer
TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences The Netherlands

Franz Rohrer
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

Richard B. Rood
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

F. Sherwood Rowland
University of California at Irvine US

Colin E. Roy
Australian Radiation Laboratory Australia

Jochen Rudolph
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

James M. Russell III
NASA Langley Research Center US

Nelson Sabogal
United Nations Environment Programme Kenya

Karen Sage
NASA Langley Research Center US

Ross Salawitch
Harvard University US

Eugenio Sanhueza
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas Venezuela

K.M. Sarma
United Nations Environment Programme Kenya

Toru Sasaki
Meteorological Research Institute Japan

Sue M. Schauffler
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Hans Eckhart Scheel
Fraunhofer Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung Germany

Ulrich Schmidt
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

Rainer Schmitt
Meteorologie Consult Germany

Ulrich Schumann
DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphare Germany

M.D. Schwarzkopf
NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory US

Gunther Seckmeyer
Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environment Germany

Jonathan D. Shanklin
British Antarctic Survey UK

Keith P. Shine
University of Reading UK

H.W. Sidebottom
University College Dublin Ireland

P. Simmonds
University of Bristol UK

Paul C. Simon
Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Belgium

Hanwant B. Singh
NASA Ames Research Center US

Paula Skrivánková
Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Czech Republic

Herman Smit
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

Susan Solomon
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

Johannes Staehelin
Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zürich Switzerland

Knut Stamnes
University of Alaska US

L. Paul Steele
CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Australia

Leopoldo Stefanutti
Instituto di Riccrea sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche del CNR Italy

Richard S. Stolarski
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Frode Stordal
Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning Norway

A. Strand
University of Bergen Norway

B.H. Subbaraya
Physical Research Laboratory India

Nien-Dak Sze
Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. US

Anne M. Thompson
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center US

Xue X. Tie
National Center for Atmospheric Research US

Margaret A. Tolbert
University of Colorado US

Darin W. Toohey
University of California at Irvine US

Ralf Toumi
University of Cambridge UK

Michael Trainer
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

Charles R. Trepte
NASA Langley Research Center US

Adrian Tuck
NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory US

R. Van Dorland
Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut The Netherlands

Karel Vanicek
Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Czech Republic

Geraint Vaughan
University of Wales UK

Guido Visconti
Universita' degli Studi-l'Aquila Italy

Andreas Volz-Thomas
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

Andreas Wahner
Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany

Wei-Chyung Wang
State University of New York at Albany/Asrc US

David I. Wardle
Atmospheric Environment Service Canada

David A. Warrilow
UK Department of the Environment UK

Joe W. Waters
California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory US

Robert T. Watson
Office of Science and Technology Policy US

E.C. Weatherhead
NOAA Air Resources Laboratory US

Christopher R. Webster
California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory US

D. Weisenstein
Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. US

Ray F. Weiss
Scripps Institution of Oceanography US

Paul Wennberg
Harvard University US

Howard Wesoky
National Aeronautics and Space Administration US

Thomas M.L. Wigley
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research US

Oliver Wild
University of Cambridge UK

Paul H. Wine
Georgia Institute of Technology US

Peter Winkler
Deutscher Wetterdienst Germany

Steven C. Wofsy
Harvard University US

Donald J. Wuebbles
University of Illinois US

Vladimir Yushkov
Central Aerological Observatory Russia

Ahmed Zand
Tehran University Iran

Rudi J. Zander
University of Liege Belgium

Joseph M. Zawodny
NASA Langley Research Center US

Reinhard Zellner
Universitat Gesamthochschule Essen Germany

Christos Zerefos
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece

Xiu Ji Zhou
Academy of Meteorological Science China


Sponsoring Organizations Liaisons

Rumen D. Bojkov, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland
K.M. Sarma, United Nations Environment Programme, Kenya
Daniel L. Albritton, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US
Michael J. Kurylo, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, US

Coordinating Editor

Christine A. Ennis, NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES, US

Editorial Staff

Jeanne S. Waters, NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, US

Publication Design and Layout

University of Colorado at Boulder Publications Service:
Elizabeth C. Johnston
Patricia L. Jensen
Andrew S. Knoedler

Conference Coordination and Documentation

Rumen D. Bojkov, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland
Marie-Christine Charriére, World Meteorological Organization, France
Christine A. Ennis, NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory/CIRES, US
Jeanne S. Waters, NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, US

Conference Support

Flo M. Ormond, Birch and Davis Associates, Inc., US
Kathy A. Wolfe, Computer Sciences Corporation, US